Flexible process technology for the mechanical treatment of complex material flows

The use of electro-hydraulic comminution during mechanical treatment of secondary raw materials leads to a specific weakening of interfaces within the material.

This allows for separation by material that is largely independent of the degree of comminution. The result is high liberation of materials without excessive comminution. This technology is based on shock waves generated by pulsed high-voltage spark discharges. The shockwaves propagate through the surrounding liquid carrier medium and hit the material.These short, but very intense, mechanical impacts specifically attack weak spots within the material: Fragmentation occurs at macroscopic joints or microscopic interfaces. This article shows the use of this method based on the examples of delaminating decoration strips and fragmenting PCBs (printed circuit boards). A variety of technologies for the additional process stages of preconditioning and sorting are available on pilot-plant scale or are in the pipeline at Fraunhofer IWKS. Material can be classified using a multi-deck screening machine – e.g. separated into undersize and oversize particles. Ferrous and non-ferrous metals can be removed from the materialflow using traditional methods, such as magnetic and eddy-current separation. Preconditioned material can ultimately be separated into additional fractions with the help of asensor-based sorting unit. This sorting unit consists of an induction sensor, an optical CCD camera and a hyperspectral NIR camera. The use of these three sensors helps to separate material by metal content, colour, form, plastic type and other infrared-active components. A flexible combination of the individual technologies allows specific process chains to be developed for different material flows and areas of application. Operating parameters can be recorded and optimised by extensive crosslinking and data acquisition.This allows a detailed assessment of the process chain to be performed from an economic and ecological perspective.



Copyright: © Wasteconsult international
Quelle: Waste to Resources 2017 (Mai 2017)
Seiten: 11
Preis: € 5,50
Autor: Dr. Katrin Bokelmann
Dr.-Ing. Thorsten Hartfeil
Joachim Knierim
Dr. Carsten Gellermann
Prof. Dr. Rudolf Stauber

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