|Making Effective Use of Australiaâ€™s Natural Resources â€“ The Record of Australian Renewable Energy Law under the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act 2000 (Cth)|
Transformation of the emissions intensive electricity generation sector to zero carbon energy sources is a vital element in response to the threat of â€śdangerous climate change.â€ť2 In conjunction with a carbon price and/or â€śdirect actionâ€ť measures such as government incentives for voluntary emissions reduction efforts by business and industry, renewable energy (RE) law provides a mechanism to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by promoting the generation of electricity from clean, renewable sources. The continuing absence of a carbon price in Australia has further highlighted the importance of Australia having effective RE law
|Integrating Renewable Energy into Nigeriaâ€™s Energy Mix through the Law: Lessons from Germany|
Peter Kayode Oniemola
Nigeria has significant fossil fuel and renewable energy resources. Public policy has focused on support of the former. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policy situation in Nigeria and also outlines the considerable renewable energy resources that the country has. Using the experience of Germany in promoting the installation of renewable electricity systems with a series of legal mechanisms, particularly the use of a feed-in tariff, this article explores legal and policy options for Nigeria to follow the German example in promoting the installation of renewable electricity systems.
|Why Would Oil Countries be in Renewables? â€“ The Case of Venezuela|
Dr. GermĂˇn MassabiĂ©
Venezuela, one of the most important oil exporting countries, presents a paradox: the country (and its energy system) has a deep dependence on oil, not as an energy source but as a financial source that supports the political system. Since the mid-fifties, the condition of Venezuela as an oil exporting country has favored the development of hydroelectricity as a major source of electricity. Renewable energy sources (RES) are seen as a means to achieve sustainable economic development, and the Venezuelan government has started to support wind and solar energy in recent years, despite its conventional energy resources. This article explores the chances for and obstacles to promoting the use of RES in oil exporting countries using the example of Venezuela.
|Wind Energy in China: From Ad hoc Projects to Strategic Policy|
Pei-Fei Chang, Hans Bruyninckx
This paper investigates the major driving forces behind Chinaâ€™s wind energy policy transformation, including the Renewable Energy Law (REL), the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and the increased participation of stakeholders like large stateowned enterprises (SOEs), government-organized non-governmental organizations, and multinational companies. Much of the data collected in this paper was gathered from interviews with senior officials in the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), large SOEs, and other influential public and private actors in the Chinese wind energy sector. This paper presents three findings: First, Chinese wind policy has shifted from supporting ad hoc projects to developing strategic policies. Second, critical problems remain unsolved in projects and policies involving the CDM. shird, the central government is no longer the sole influential actor in Chinaâ€™s wind policy, with other stakeholders playing an increasingly critical role.
|Editorial Board Commentary: Further Improved Framework Conditions for Wind Power in Germany since 2009|
Dipl.-Volkswirt Kai Schlegelmilch
By the end of 2010, the total installed wind energy capacity in Germany was 27,214 MW, of which 1,551 MW was added in 2010.1 In 2009, 1,917 MW were added, indicating a year-over-year reduction in installation of 19 % from 2009 to 2010. The number of plants increased by 754 MW in 2010; overall there were 21,607 wind power turbines installed. Wind energy has extended its leading position among renewables, and now accounts for more than 7 % of gross electricity consumption in Germany, which is about half of all electricity generated from renewables (16.4 % of gross electricity consumption in 2010). The proportion of wind in the energy mix in Germany is expected to grow in the future.