GWF international 2011


Energy Efficient Aeration in a Single Low Pressure Hollow Sheet Membrane Filtration Module
T. R. Bentzen, N. Ratkovich, M. R. Rasmussen, Nicolas Heinen, Franck Hansen
The main drawback of membrane bioreactors (MBR) systems is the fouling of the membrane, which is decreased and/or prevented through gas sparging. However, this practice is based on rules of thumb or trialand- error approaches which are tedious, very time-consuming, do not necessarily provide optimal fouling control and they are not energy effi cient. Therefore, dedicated experiments are needed to fully understand the hydrodynamics of it. A hollow sheet (HS) MBR was studied. Experimental velocity measurements were made using micro-propellers and compared to CFD results. A good agreement between experimental measurements and CFD results was found (error less than 11 % on average). Due to the fact that the shear stress measurements were not performed, they were extracted from the CFD simulations, as the CFD simulation was validated against velocity data. The results of shear stress shows that the shear is homogeneously distributes over the predominant part of the membrane surface.
Evaluation of Carbonaceous Organic Matter and Nitrogen Removal of Wastewater in Membrane Bioreactor
Luiz Fernando Bezerra, Tsunao Matsumoto
This study aimed to evaluate the carbonaceous organic matter and nitrogen removal as well as the determination of critical fl ux in membrane bioreactor (MBR), with pre-anoxic zone, treating industrial wastewater of amino acids production. The reactor was operated under organic loading rate of 1.91 kg DQO/m3 · day and 0.18 kg NTK/m3 · day, the recirculation from aerobic reactor to anoxic reactor was 4 times the infl uent fl ow rate. The system showed an average removal of COD, TKN and TN of 97 %, 98 % and 92 %, respectively. The ultrafi ltration system was tested at various fl uxes between 25 and 37 L/m2·h, to determine the critical fl ux of 28 L/m2·h operating at 11.4 g/L of TSS and 35 days of sludge retention time. The results showed the technical feasibility of using MBR to remove organic matter from industrial wastewater of amino acids production.
Design and Operation of an Ultrafiltration Plant for the Production of Drinking Water out of the River Scheldt
Jan Cromphout, Wim Closset, Liesbeth Verdickt, Jan Coemelck
In April 2009, the production capacity of the conventional drinking water treatment plant “de Gavers” in Harelbeke, Belgium, was extended from 25,000 to 32,000 m³/day by the construction of an ultrafi ltration unit. In this paper, the design of the ultrafi ltration unit is elaborated and the fi rst operational results with respect to membrane fouling, membrane integrity and effl uent quality are presented. With respect to membrane fouling, in-line coagulation applying a small dose of fl occulant was found to be necessary to keep membrane fouling under control. Membrane integrity testing demonstrated a log 4 removal for micro-organisms larger than 3 μm. Compared to the conventional coagulation-fi ltration plant the ultrafi ltration unit produces an effl uent with lower bacteria counts. Moreover, the turbidity of its effl uent is also substantially lower. However, the hydraulic yield of ultrafi ltration is considerably lower than that of the conventional treatment and it results in a higher waste water production.
Filterability and Floc size in Membrane Bioreactors: European Scale Assessment
Maria Lousada-Ferreira, Jules B. van Lier, Jaap H. J. M. van der Graaf
Filterability is a recognized parameter to evaluate membrane bioreactor (MBR) sludge quality. A link was established between fi lterability and submicron particles, i.e. sludge with worse fi lterability has a higher amount of submicron particles. In this research, the relation between fi lterability and suspended particles, measured through particle counting in the range 2–100 μm, was investigated to evaluate whether suspended material can be a source of submicron particles, causing the aforementioned fi lterability decrease. The research was performed at 4 pilot-scale MBRs, complementing previous research performed at 4 full-scale MBRs. Results showed that MBR activated sludge fi lterability improves with increasing sludge fl oc size, supporting the initial hypothesis. Nevertheless, in one single MBR installation varitions in the membrane tank floc size are likely to be limited.
Comparison of the Pretreatment Efficiency Between UF and Sand Filtration of a Desalination Process Using a Reverse Osmosis Membrane
H.N. Jang, D. S. Lee, E. S. Jang, C. H. Kim, S. O. Ko
The pretreatment process is known to be the dominant infl uence factor in the RO process. Therefore, this study was done to evaluate effi ciency by comparing membrane fi ltration (UF) with two-stage sand fi ltrations for pretreatment of the RO process. SDI and particle size distribution of feed sea water and pretreatment permeate water were measured to analyse the infl uence of the fouling factor of the RO membrane. The SDI removal effi - ciency of the UF membrane fi ltration process was better than that for the sand fi ltration. The particle fraction under 20 ÎĽm of feed sea water and sand fi ltration permeate water was more than 93 % and 97 %, respectively. As for results of operation, micro particles were not removed by the sand fi ltration. Furthermore, although the UF membrane process had a higher recovery than the sand fi ltration process, the UF membrane process represented low RO resistance.
Modernisation and Enlargement of the Drinking Water Plant Irsch-Treves - The second largest ultra filtration plant in Germany under construction
Lambert Akongha, Michael Kollete, Helfried Welsch, Christian Girndt, Andreas Holy
The modernisation and enlargement of the second largest drinking water treatment plant (WTP) in Germany with the integration of an ultra-fi ltration stage began in February 2011, after more than a year of pilot tests. Following the current timetable the WTP in Irsch-Trier will be fully operational in summer 2013. The plant has a maximum capacity of 1600 m3/h and purifi es about 6 million m3 of drinking water per annum for the city of Treves and some surrounding communities. This paper gives a short description of the Riveris reservoir, the raw water and the existing WTP in Irsch-Treves. Furthermore, the reasons for upgrading the WTP, the targets for the new plant and the results of the pilot project are outlined. The bulk of the paper will however, be dedicated to the operational, design and constructional details of the new plant.
Sulphate Removal from Ground Water – a Case Study
Dr.-Ing. Pia Lipp, T. Gronki, Dr.-Ing. Günther Baldauf, J. Lueke, A. Lanfervoss
With ratification of the new German drinking water directive, the maximum allowable sulphate concentration is raised from 240 to 250 mg/L. However, exceedances due to geogenic conditions up to 500 mg/L sulphate are no longer permitted. Water supply utilities affected by this change now have to consider suitable treatment technologies for the given conditions. In a case study, a semi industrial pilot plant was operated with different low pressure reverse osmosis and nanofi ltration membranes to identify conditions for a stable operation and the required antiscalant dosage to achieve this. Long term operation was possible with both membrane types at a yield of 80 % with 1.2 g/mÂł of polycarboxylic acid continuously dosed as antiscalant. In order to elucidate the possibilities for concentrate discharge several treatment processes have been investigated.
Challenge of High Water Hardness and Elevated Temperature: MBR Pilot Trials in the Paper Industry under Mesophilic and Thermophilic Conditions
, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Hakan CĂĽcĂĽk, Dipl.-Ing. Svenja Bierbaum
The results of two MBR pilot trials conducted in paper mills are discussed. In the fi rst trial it was possible to operate a MBR pilot plant under the challenges of extremely high water hardness and a mean calcium concentration of 770 mg/L that caused massive scaling problems. An upstream lime softening pilot plant was designed and constructed. As a result, the fl ux increased again and the cleaning intervals could be extended signifi cantly. With the help of lime softening, 50–80 % of the calcium was removed upstream of the MBR pilot plant. The second part of the paper describes trials using a thermophilic aerobic MBR (TMBR) at 50 °C. A new and innovative use of submerged fl at-sheet MBR-modules to treat paper industry circuit wastewater was studied. The elimination rates of the TMBR regarding COD and BOD5 were 83 % and 99 %, respectively. A pilot trial was conducted at a fl ux of 4.5 to 8.5 L/m2/h. Lab experiments with a smaller membrane module had shown a higher fl ux of 8 to 13 L/m2/h.
Mine Water Treatment by Membrane Filtration Processes – Upscale Experiments
Dipl.-Ing. Paul Steinberger, Dipl.-Ing. Nadine Siebdrath, Dipl.-Ing. André Rieger, Dr.rer.nat. Roland Haseneder, Dipl.-Ing. Yun Zeng
The worlds’ diminishing water resources together with stricter environmental legislation lead to the development of new technologies for the treatment of water for mining activities. In arid and remote mining areas a promising approach is the integration of membrane technology into state of the art mine water treatment processes. Reverse Osmosis (RO) as well as the lower pressure nanofi ltration (NF) may be suitable operations to be considered. Recently an NF membrane identifi ed in previous tests was subject to further investigation in two upscale modules. The acidic water, containing sulphate and a variety of metals, was fed into a disc- and a Spacer Tube® spiral wound module in recycle mode. The setup was tested at different working points over 145 h for each run. The results show applicability of NF for desalination of AMD under the mentioned conditions. No visible drop in permeate fl ux was observed, although some scaling occurred.
Membrane Filtration of Wastewater Split Flows originating from Paper Industry and Biological Wastewater Treatment of the generated Membrane Concentrates
Dipl.-Ing. Sebastian Tews, Dipl.-Ing. Ralf Minke, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Heidrun Steinmetz
Wastewater effluents from deinking- and TMP processes were taken and were concentrated in 2 stages consisting of ultra- and nanofi ltration. Futher more, the concentrates were biologically treated with a single aerobic and a hybrid anaerobic-aerobic process. With a continuous anaerobic reactor and an aerobic SBR reactor experiments were conducted to study the variations in hydraulic retention time (HRT), food to biomass ratio (F/M) and wastewater concentrate. For the deinking wastewater concentrate, an overall average COD elimination of 51 % and 57 % was achieved for aerobic and anaerobic-aerobic treatment, respectively. Single stage aerobic treatment of TMP wastewater concentrate had an mean COD elimination effi ciency of 61 % and the hybrid anaerobic-aerobic treatment yielded 73 %. The temperature in the aerobic biological SBR reactor was kept stable at 30 °C with an F/M ratio between 0.01 and 0.5 gBOD5/(gSS · d).
Fate of Pharmaceuticals during Wastewater Treatment by a Membrane Bioreactor
Trang Trinh, Ben van den Akker, Heather Coleman, Stuart Khan, Pierre Le-Clech
This study provides a comprehensive insight into the levels and fate of nine commonly used pharmaceuticals (amitriptyline, atenolol, gemfi brozil, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, metformin, naproxen, paracetamol and simvastatin) through a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) in New South Wales, Australia. Seven out of the nine studied pharmaceuticals were detected in the raw sewage with average concentrations in the range of 1.29– 33.3 μg.L–1, while gemfi brozil and simvastatin were below the analytical detection limit (1 ng.L–1). The MBR consistently achieved high removal effi ciencies of the detected pharmaceuticals, in the range of 77.2–99.9 %. A mass-balance showed that sorption to biomass was the dominant removal mechanism for amitriptyline while biodegradation/ transformation was responsible for removing all other pharmaceuticals. This study revealed that log D (Log Kow corrected for ionisation at the ambient pH) provides an effective estimation of the sorption capacity of these pharmaceuticals to biomass.
Tertiary Filtration with Ultrafiltration Membranes in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants - Engineering challenges for the implementation in existing wastewater treatment plant
Dr.-Ing. Martin Wett, Dipl.-Ing. Eberhard Back
During the operation of tertiary filtration stages in a dead-end-mode, retentate concentrate and rinsing water from membrane cleaning accrue naturally. Work on process solutions for these process waters with no additional particle loads for the tertiary membrane fi ltration stage and no further hydraulic loads is obviously necessary. A process engineering concept for the treatment of retentate volume fl ows by a combination of fl otation technology, secondary fi ltration and centrifuge technology allows for a hydraulic isolation of the tertiary membrane fi ltration stage from the biological wastewater treatment.
Hygienic Membrane Process Design for Applications in the Beverage Industry as a Necessity for Cold-aseptic Beverage Production - From the viewpoint of an equipment and plant manufacturer
Dr. Jörg Zacharias, Dirk Scheu
Due to the increasing requirements for industrially produced beverages, aseptic processes are gaining more and more relevance. This is manifested in extended shelf-lifes and an increasing number of untreated products. Usually heat treatment is the common method of pasteurisation. In terms of gentle product treatment and energy consumption, this is only the second-best manner. The authors map out what the requirements of a hygienic membrane process design for applications in the beverage industry have to be. They present solutions and discuss the problems involved in cold-aseptic beverage production.
Interview: Membrane technology under discussion
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Johannes Pinnekamp, Dipl.-Ing. Christine Ziegler
The Institutes for Environmental Engineering (ISA) and for Chemical Process Engineering (AVT) of RWTH Aachen University together with the International Water Association (IWA) this year arrange the 6th IWA Specialist Conference on Membrane Technology for Water & Wastewater Treatment, an international forum for experts with about 140 lectures on the current status of research and development in membrane technology, Prof. Dr. Johannes Pinnekamp, director of the ISA, and Christine Ziegler of gwf-Wasser|Abwasser talked about the orientation and significance of the event and the major applications of membrane technology in the field of water and wastewater treatment.
Energy-efficient MBR Process with MaxFlow Multi-deck Membrane Modules
Steffen Richter, Jan Brinkman
Energy is always an issue in MBR applications because of the additional energy consumption for the cake layer control. A3 Water Solutions GmbH and MMF MaxFlow Membran Filtration GmbH, Gelsenkirchen, Germany, designed a very attractive and energy efficient multideck module for larger MBR applications. Due to the smart and compact design, it is possible to combine flat sheet membranes having the advantage of minimum pretreatment in wastewater together with low energy consumption and small footprint as hollow fibre modules normally have. For Europe’s largest industrial MBR plant at Agfa Gevaert AG (Belgium), MMF MaxFlow Membran Filtration GmbH delivered triple deck Multi Modules with a membrane’s surface of 630 m² each and a footprint of < 2 m². The specific air demand (SAD) of the module is < 0.2 Nm³/(m² · h).
Toray Membrane Europe AG
Tobias Rieck, Fabian Oehen, Jonas Löwenberg
Successfully Tested the Process Combination of Ultrafiltration and Powdered Activated Carbon for Advanced Wastewater Treatment in Lab Scale
Sustainable MBR Application by Mechanical Membrane Cleaning
Christoph Thiemig, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Stefan Krause
A non-chemical, mechanical cleaning process has been developed, in which granulates (particles) are added to the activated sludge in order to effect a continuous abrasion of the fouling layer.
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