Waste Management, Volume 5

Operating Experience from the World´s Largest Waste Fired Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor in Västerås
Dr. Markus BolhĂ r-Nordenkampf, Tapani Nummelin, Tero Luomaharju, Jussi Vilijanen
Valmet Power has a long experience in fluidized bed combustion. Since 1980’s both Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BFB) and Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers have been used in combustion for various types of solid fuels, from fossil fuels to biomass and nowadays more and more for recovered fuels like demolition wood and SRF.
How to Derive BATAELs from Operational Values for the Waste Incineration BREF Revision? – A Proposal –
Graduated Engineer (ENSTA) Hubert de Chefdebien, Guillaume Perron-Piché
For many years European industrial emissions policy has taken an integrated approach, with the use of Best Available Techniques at its heart. While not originally mandatory, by 2010 the conclusions of the reference document outlining best practice for waste incineration became legally-binding. Now however, those reference documents are to be revised, along with the emission limits they set. How will this be done? This manuscript presents a method to derive BATAELs, detailed further.
Review of the Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document (BREF) for Waste Incineration – Current Status and Trends –
Gianluca Cusano
Synopsis of presentation by the Joint Research Centre’s European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Bureau
Mechanical-Biological Treatment of Municipal Waste in Poland – Dominating Technologies and their Efficiency in Diverting Waste from Landfills –
Dr.-Ing. Emilia den Boer
In Poland mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) technology is a prevailing method of mixed waste treatment. It is applied both as a way to recover waste fractions for material and energy recovery and to stabilize the biodegradable waste prior to landfilling.
Waste Incineration Plants – State of the Art
Trimurti Irzan, Dipl. Chem. Ing. Luciano Pelloni, Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Vollmeier, Markus Wieduwilt, Dominique Dietschweiler
The main objective of waste management is to treat solid waste, wastewater and waste air in a sustainable way in order to protect human health and the environment from damage caused by harmful substances. With increasing amounts of waste, besides preventing or limiting the input of pollutants, saving resources has become more and more important.
Thermal Waste Treatment Plant Spittelau – New Construction to the Existing Plant –
Christian Jonas, Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Philipp Krobath, Ing. Erich Pawelka, Ing. Ulrich Ponweiser, Dipl.-Ing. Martin Höbler
The thermal waste treatment plant Spittelau is steeped in history and tradition. It is one out of four municipal solid waste incinerations plants in Vienna. The plant was built from 1969 until 1971 for the purpose of thermal utilization of municipal waste and household-type commercial waste as well as energy supply of the new General Hospital Vienna two kilometres away via district heating. The plant was equipped with two hot-water boilers to ensure heat supply at all times. Although it is located in the town-centre of Vienna its architectural structure did not differ significantly from the traditional plant structure.
Situation and Waste Management Strategy of the Czech Republic and Experience in Planning, Construction and Operation of WtE and SRF Plants
Professor Ing. Ph.D. Dagmar Juchelková, Professor Ing. Helena Raclavská, Radim Kovarík, Pavel Bartoš
Waste utilization has the potential of savings in using fossil fuels. In the Czech Republic, three incinerators of municipal waste are operating currently, there are many projects for implementation of others; unfortunately, they usually fail to succeed due to the economic evaluation. Support for the construction of new facilities for thermal treatment of waste is practically non-existent. Apparently, this could be solved through a number of alternative approaches – combined combustion, processing of sorted waste; however, a conceptual solution is still missing. The article aims to present the current situation and potential for the future.
High-Temperature Gasifying and Direct Melting System for Energy and Material Recovery from any Type of Wastes
Masato Katafuchi, Takuya Shinagawa, Masao Abuku, Shinnosuke Nagayama
JFE High-Temperature Gasifying and Direct Melting Furnace System was developed by integrating our original technologies for the ironmaking blast furnace and fluidized bed for incineration plants, which the company cultivated over many years.
Current Developments in European Waste-to-Energy
Ferdinand Kleppmann, Dr. Ella Stengler
Europe’s future Circular Economy package should be ambitious in minimising landfilling of recyclable and recoverable waste, in order to maximise the use of waste as a resource. It should take a holistic approach that considers supply of raw materials as well as supply of secure and sustainable energy, which is an important part of the European Energy Union. This approach would be in line with Better Regulation and would benefit the environment, jobs and growth in Europe.
Possibilities of Development of Municipal Waste Recycling and Incineration in Poland
Dr. Beata B. Klopotek
One of the basic rules in the field of waste management is the use of processes which are located as high as possible in the waste hierarchy, while taking into consideration the life cycle thinking. This also applies to municipal waste management. Waste prevention is at the top of the hierarchy. This is followed by: preparation for reuse, recycling and other recovery processes, including thermal treatment (incineration) of waste with energy recovery. The disposal of waste, which includes, among others, landfilling, is at the bottom of the hierarchy. Thus, the objective is to move up the hierarchy, which means moving away from waste disposal towards waste recovery.
Real-time Analysis of Solid Recovered Fuels using Sensor Technology
Dr.-Ing. Peter Krämer, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Sabine Flamme
Quality assurance plays an important role for the production and utilization of solid recovered fuels (SRF) generated from municipal solid and production waste.
Treatment of Bottom Ashes of Waste-to-Energy Installations – State of the Art –
Frans Lamers
Waste-to-Energy installations generate around 25 percent bottom ashes, that may be considered non-hazardous waste. On a total of 76 million tonnes of incinerated waste, this means a total of roughly 19 Million tonnes of bottom ashes.
Waste-to-Energy in China: Status and Prospects
Dr. Yanlong Li, Dr. Wenchao Teng, Dr. Weiyun Wang, Professor Tianhua Yang, Prof. Dr. Rundong Li
Innovative strategies are needed to deal with the municipal solid wastes which we produce today to achieve the Waste-to-Energy (WTE). The objective of the article is to introduce the status and prospects of WTE in China.
Flue Gas Treatment – State of the Art
Dr.-Ing. Margit Löschau, Professor Dr.-Ing. Rudi H. Karpf
For the removal of air pollutants from the flue gas, a flue gas treatment system is required downstream the boiler. Such treatment systems consist of a system of cleaning processes for the reduction of particulate, vapour and gaseous substances in the flue gas.
Decentralised Waste Incineration Plant R.Vandhoo in the North of the Maldives - Project Experience, Energy Use and First Operation Results -
Heinz Lorson, Chakir Kasdarli
Environmental pressures in the Maldives raised from the fragile geography of the country coupled with rising population densities, increased tourism and changing consumption patterns. The country faces growing problems with solid waste management and pollution from sewage and other effluents emanating from urban settlements, hotels, fish-processing plants, ships and other sources. The quantities of solid waste generated exceed disposal and treatment capacity. Most wastes are dumped onto the island foreshore and burnet at low combustion temperatures. Uncontrolled waste disposal and floating debris at tourist resorts is the most visible threat to the country´s reputation as a pristine high-end tourist destination.
Simple and Effective – the Conditioned Dry Sorption Process for Flue Gas Treatment Downstream Waste Incinerators
Dipl.-Ing. RĂĽdiger Margraf
The conditioned dry sorption with utilisation of Ca-based additive powder qualities became increasingly important in Europe in the course of the past years regarding the application waste incineration plants. Starting from the prohibition of disposal in the year 2005 until today, the vast majority of new plants for waste and RDF combustion in Germany has been provided with a conditioned dry sorption system. This trend continues with regard to the new planning of WtE-plants in Europe and other parts of the world.
Change of Mechanical-Biological Waste Treatment in Austria
Dipl.-Ing. Josef Mitterwallner, Hofrat Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Wilhelm Himmel
The development of mechanical-biological waste treatment in Austria is inextricably linked to the development of the Austrian landfill law. Based on the provisions of the Austrian Landfill Ordinance 1996, only pre-treated, poor reactive waste is allowed to be deposited in Austria since 1 January 2004.
Mechanical-biological Stabilization Plant in Trier – Biological Drying and Recovery of Recyclable Materials –
Dr. Maximilian-G. Monzel, Kate Hornsby, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thomas Pretz
In spite of the fact that the EU has set up a waste hierarchy and issued key pieces of waste management directives, and ratified by all EU member states, compliance with diversion targets away from landfilling are still considered too ambitious and are far out of the reach of many EU countries. This is especially true for the southern European and Eastern European Member States, who are looking for viable economic and robust technologies that be rapidly implemented assisting them to fulfil EU targets within the desired timeframes.
Mechanical-Biological Waste Treatment and Utilization of Solid Recovered Fuels – State of the Art
Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang MĂĽller, Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Anke Bockreis
The EU landfill directive requires a reduction of 65 percent of biodegradable waste which is landfilled (Art. 5). The major problem with organic waste is that it degrades to the greenhouse gas methane in a landfill.
Advanced Urban Mining: A Summary of the State of the Art of Metal Recovery out of Dry Bottom Ash
Markus Wieduwilt, Dr. René Müller, Mauro Luzzatto, Antoine Brison
The world’s demand for resources will ceaselessly increase in future. This will have a negative impact on availability and price of finite resources. The only way to satisfy the future demand is to minimize the dissipation of the resources during their life-cycle and to close the latter as good as possible. A potential shortage of resources in the future will make the recovery of resources from waste more efficient than their primary production. Another driver towards the minimization of resource dissipation will be the increasingly tighter legislation on environmental protection.
Markets for Solid Waste Management in Arabic Countries
Ayman Elnaas, Dr.-Ing. Abdallah Nassour, Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles
Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a very challenging activity all over the world, especially with the rising world population, the growth in industrialisation and the expansion of urbanisation. Land scarcity and environmental and public health implications are raising serious concerns on the landfilling of solid waste as a disposal route. It is, therefore becoming exceedingly urgent, for the Arab region, to develop and implement disposal methods for MSW that is cost effective and environmentally sustainable.
The Roadmap of Turkey on Waste Management
Professor Dr. Mustafa Ă–ztĂĽrk
Industrial and technological developments have increased rapidly throughout the world including Turkey. Furthermore, the population of Turkey is also increasing and the ever-increasing consumption creates larger amounts of waste and adversely affects the environment and human health.
Cost Optimization through Use of Flexible Grate Systems in Combination with Modern Boiler Concepts
Jochen Poschlod, Dipl.-Ing. Werner Auel
Old method, new approach: for customer-oriented solutions. The demands on innovative grate technologies mean to explore the full potential of available technology and to push the technical boundaries further.
Pyrolysis and Gasification – State of the Art
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Peter Quicker
Considering the worldwide number of installations as well as their capacity, the most dominating treatment method for waste is incineration. Currently, 225 million tons of waste are treated in 2,200 facilities.
Waste-to-Energy Projects in Emerging Markets: Lessons Learned from Realized International Projects
Dr. Alexander Stefan Rieger
A rapidly growing population, industry and energy consumption are key indicators for emerging markets. As their economic circumstances develop quickly, emerging markets attract further capital which is accompanied by further economic growth and a need for a suitable infrastructure environment. This accelerating development leads towards big shifts in the national and global economy.
Production of Solid Recovered Fuels (SRF) in the ThermoTeam Plant in Retznei, Austria – Experience, Quality and Quality Assurance of SRF –
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. mont. Renato Sarc, Em.o.Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Karl E. Lorber, Univ.-Prof. DI Dr. mont. Roland Pomberger
In present chapter, the Austrian waste management system, including position and role of the alternative fuel production plant ThermoTeam as well as legal requirements on SRF quality together with quality assurance measures are described.
SNCR for Low NOx Emissions – Case Study of a Swedish Waste-to-Energy Plant –
Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang SchĂĽttenhelm, Philip Reynolds
All over the world people understand that reducing air pollution is essential to increase health and comfort of people. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are among the main components of pollutants caused by combustion processes. It is toxic by direct contact and it causes acid rain.
State of Municipal Waste Management in EU Member States Depending on the Standard of Living
Professor Dr.-Ing. Oktay Tabasaran
The Waste Framework Directive of the European Union (EU) from 2008 is the legal framework for waste legislation of the Member States. Article 4 of the Framework sets a five-step hierarchy with regards to the handling of waste in the order of prevention, preparing for reuse, recycling (recycling including reprocessing of organic substances), other kinds of utilization (e.g. thermal) and disposal.
Shaft Furnace Type Gasification and Direct Melting System – Technology, Input Flexibility, Operational Characteristics and Emissions –
Nobuhiro Tanigaki, Ryo Makishi, Toshimi Nagata
Gasification of municipal solid waste has been widely researched all over the world and is recognized as an alternative thermal technology for waste treatment. The Direct Melting System is shaft-furnace type gasification and melting technology for various kinds of wastes. It has more than 40 references and has been operated for 36 years. This gasification technology is employed to treat municipal solid waste, but can also treat various kinds of wastes together and can achieve both the energy and material recovery from waste in one process.
Mechanical-Biological Treatment Plant in Hanover, Germany – Experience in Mechanical Processing, Anaerobic Digestion and Refuse Derived Fuel Quality –
Dr. Beate Vielhaber
The Hanover mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant can look back on 15 years of operator´s experience. The mechanical treatment facility has been working largely without any issues due to the simple technique and the comfortable redundancy and design. The biological treatment facility faces growing damage due to ageing of materials, which is accelerated by microbiological attack, and corrosive and abrasive ingredients in the residual waste. Comprehensive maintenance, renovation and replacement measures are planned.
New Developments of an Effective SNCR Control System Incorporating the NOx Mass Flow Profile
Dipl.-Ing. Bernd von der Heide
The NOx reduction rates which have been achieved in recent years using non-catalytic technologies (SNCR) have proved to be reliable even in applications which were believed to work only with the more costly SCR process in the past. In the meantime, SNCR has advanced to be the Best Available Technology (BAT) in grate-fired combustion plants.
Survey on Synergies for Improved Ash Treatment at Several Bavarian Waste-to-Energy Plants
Dr. Karsten Wambach, Dipl.-Chem. Hermann Nordsieck, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Rommel
State-of-the-art Waste-to-Energy plants are reducing the volume of municipal and commercial waste as well as generating electric power and district heating. This survey concentrates on bottom ash treatment and utilization from a wet discharge process all Bavarian Waste-to-Energy – WtE – plants have in common.


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