Waste Management, Volume 4


Best Available Techniques (BAT) for Mechanical-Biological Waste Treatment Plants
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Anke Bockreis, Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang MĂŒller
The European BREF documents (Best Available Technique Reference Documents) describe the Best Available Techniques (BAT) for low-emission operation of industrial plants which also include waste treatment plants. The definition of the best available techniques in terms of the BREFs is similar to that of the German term state of the art. The legal basis is the Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EU (IED Directive) which replaced the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive of 15th January 2008 (IPPC Directive). With the adoption of the IED Directive, the BREF Documents have been gaining increased legal weight. They must be observed in setting permit conditions and constitute a major element of the permitting process.
Impact of Operation Mode and Design on the Energy Efficiency of Waste Combustion Plants
Dr. ir. Johan De Greef, Hans Van Belle, Dr. ir. Kenneth Villani
As climate issues are gaining urgency worldwide, focus is set on reducing industrial carbon footprints through fossil fuel replacement and energetic optimization of processes. This paper contains results of a study on technical options to attain a higher energetic efficiency from Waste-to-Energy (WtE) boiler & steam cycles. The aim of the study is to determine the available margins for energetic optimization of WtE plants, taking into account the particular constraints of a waste combustion process. The impacts of distinct process variables are quantified and compared. These variables include a.o. temperatures, pressures, process ratios and recycling rates, as typically applied to flows of combustion air, flue gas, steam and condensate. A few selected cases are elaborated to illustrate the cumulative effect of technical choices during the design and the operation of WtE plants. Finally, the results also enable the knowledgeable reader to determine an indicative value for R1.
Flue Gas Cleaning Today – Available Technologies and Latest Developments –
Christian Fuchs
Many scientific approaches have been made in the past to determine the best flue gas cleaning technology. An answer given was always depending on the legal requirements, the public opinion, the technical status of the period and maybe also depending on the persons interest giving the answer. In other words, there is always a different or a new answer, depending on the year when you ask the question. We try to summarize todayÂŽs situation on available flue gas cleaning technologies knowing that the corresponding BREF document is undergoing a revision at the moment.
Biogas Utilisation in Berlin
Dr.-Ing. Alexander Gosten
Sustainable resource management and active climate protection as well as the longterm rise in energy prices determine the decision-making processes of municipal waste service providers. Optimised energy utilisation from waste is is a major priority in the strategy of BSR (Berlin City Cleaning Services). As a result BSR started up an organic waste fermentation plant in 2013. The biogas is processed and transformed into biomethane, which is fed into Berlin‘s gas distribution network and then used as fuel for BSR‘s waste collection vehicles that run on natural gas, thereby replacing about 2.5 million litres of diesel.
The Biobattery – Integrated Heat and Power Generation from Biomass Residues and Waste –
Hon. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Matthias Franke, Dipl.-Wi.-Ing. Fabian Stenzel, Dipl.-Ing. Samir Binder, Prof. Dr. Andreas Hornung
In the light of rising energy costs and ongoing discussions concerning climate and resource protection, the use of bio-waste can no longer solely be focused on the production of compost. Modern emerging technologies show the capability to make use of these resources as feedstock, both for material and energy production. Recent years have already seen the integration of anaerobic digestion units at multiple existing compost plants to exploit this potential. A further benefit of the on-site production of energy is that it largely increases the self-sustainability of the whole facility in terms of heat and power, thereby lowering costs.
Current developments in European Waste-to-Energy
Ferdinand Kleppmann
Waste-to-Energy Plants (waste incineration with energy recovery) thermally treat municipal and similar waste that cannot otherwise be reused or recycled in an environmentally or economically beneficial way, and generate energy from it.
Waste-to-Energy Plant Krakow – On the Status of Thermal Waste Treatment in Poland –
Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Ing. Gerhard Lohe
In the mid-nineties one of the first waste management conferences in Poland took place in Miedzyzdroje. Municipal representatives and technology providers came together to discuss the introduction of an orderly and environmentally sound waste management structure. At that time there was a spirit of optimism in that there was consensus that waste incinerators should be a substantial part of waste management with a significant market potential. In other words waste was available for projects which would be completed in the not too distant future.
Assessment of Dry and Semi-Dry Sorption Procedures on the Basis of Practice-Related Examples from the Field of Incineration Plants
Dipl.-Ing. RĂŒdiger Margraf
In the course of the last years, semi-dry and conditioned dry sorption procedures with the use of Ca-based additive powder qualities as well as the dry sorption with the use of NaHCO3 gained special importance in the field of incineration plants. Starting from the prohibition of disposal in the year 2005 until today, the vast majority of new plants for waste and RDF combustion in Germany has been provided with one of these process technologies. This trend continues with regard to the new planning of WtE-plants in Europe and other parts of the world.
The Development of Waste Incineration in Europe
Dipl.-Ing. Ulrich Martin
The state of the art ... or should it be called: the art of storage? To put it more precisely: where are we with respect to landfilling, recycling, and thermal treatment? What is the European Union‘s position 15 years after a political framework was put in place to prevent municipal organic waste from being landfilled? Are any windows of opportunity still open to the waste management market – or will we soon reach a saturation phase brought about by the successful implementation of the relevant Directives?
A Zero-Waste and Energetically Optimized Waste-to-Energy Concept – The Santo Domingo Este Waste Treatment Plant –
Dr.-Ing. Margit Löschau, Dipl.-Ing. GĂŒnter Nebocat
In many poor and developing countries the situation of waste management as well as energy supply is dominated by uncontrolled waste dumping and shortage of affordable energy, especially electrical power. In the Dominican Republic, in particular the densely populated capital Santo Domingo and adjacent Santo Domingo Este (SDE) are affected by such problems. Waste is collected and transported to transfer stations, from which the waste is routed to a large open landfill. This landfill is illegal according to Dominican legislation and the capacity is limited.
Waste Availability, Successful Regional Strategies and New WtE Projects Shaping – The Benefits and Application of the Optimization Tool NERUDA –
Dr. Martin Pavlas
There are more than 2,000 waste-to-energy plants (WtE) in operation worldwide. Only in Europe are there facilities with an overall processing capacity of around 100 million tons. These are mainly located in Western Europe and their erection took place between 1980 and 2000 when these countries were in the process of transiting their waste management systems into more efficient forms. Even though 120 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) was still landfilled in 2010 in EU, the outlook for new plants within Europe in this decade is pessimistic. There are only a number of several new plants planned and the centre point of future construction has shifted to Asia.
Incineration – an Indispensable Element of a Responsible Waste Management
Dipl. Chem. Ing. Luciano Pelloni
On the basis of the example of the implementation Swiss waste management concept it is shown that with simple goals and set environmental boundary conditions, reliable and sustainable solutions can be developed and realized. Hereby, incineration plays a central role and has evolved to the best available technology for the thermal treatment of waste. It became an indispensable element to solve the main problems related to waste, which comprise the reduction of waste volume, preventing from pathogenic hazards, protecting of the environment and the recovery of resources. Considering the future, with waste incineration it will be possible to extract rare substances from waste including strategic metals.
Use of Solid Recovered Fuels in the Cement Industry
Univ.-Prof. DI Dr. mont. Roland Pomberger, Dipl.-Ing. Dr. mont. Renato Sarc
The European Union Directive 2000/76/EC on the Incineration of Waste limits emissions to air, only, however, so far there are still no limits considering the levels of pollutants in the fuels, residues or products themselves when waste fuels are burnt in co-incineration plants. To overcome this shortage, the Guideline for Waste Fuels and the Waste Incineration Directive, which define quality criteria for waste fuels burnt in co-incineration plants, have been issued in Austria. According to this legal framework, waste fuels are waste that is used entirely or to a relevant extent for the purpose of energy generation and which satisfies the quality criteria laid down in the Waste Incineration Directive.
A Guidebook for Sustainable Waste Management in Latin America
Prof. Dr. Constantinos S. Psomopoulos, Prof. Nickolas J. Themelis
Economic development and rapid growth of urban population have resulted in the generation of enormous quantities of municipal solid waste (MSW) that cannot, any longer, be disposed of in the makeshift landfills of yesteryear. This has led the E.U., U.S. and other developed nations to adopt the so-called hierarchy of waste management that gives priority to waste reduction, recycling, composting and waste-to-energy (WTE) over landfilling. Sanitary landfills protect surface and groundwater and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere so they are preferable to non-regulated landfills. However, it has been estimated that only twenty percent of the global landfills are sanitary.
State of the Art of Alternative Thermal Waste Treatment Processes
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Peter Quicker, Dipl.-Ing. Florian Neuerburg, Dipl.-Ing. Yves Noël, Dipl.-Ing. Kathrin Weber, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Helmut Seifert
Incineration is the globally predominant process for thermal waste treatment considering plant number and treatment capacity. About 255 million tons of waste is processed annually in about 2200 facilities. In addition to this well established treatment method, waste pyrolysis and waste gasification offer other thermal treatment methods. These so called alternative thermal treatment processes have recurrently been presented by different operators since the 1970s, using more or less creative names.They are typically characterized by a comparably complex technology. According to the providers, the advantages of these processes compared to incineration lie within higher electrical efficiencies and/or higher value of conversion products, for example the production of glazed and therefore non-elutable slags or the production of liquid energy sources.
Ecoefficiency Comparison of the Anaerobic Digestion, Composting and Incineration of Bio-Waste
Dipl.- Ing. Thorsten Pitschke, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Rommel, Dipl.-Ing. René Peche, Dr. Dieter Tronecker, Dr. Siegfried Kreibe
Whereas for a long time, the waste industry and waste management interest was focussed on safe and environmentally compatible disposal of unavoidable and recyclable waste, today the priority is renewable energy generation, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and improving recycling management of recoverable materials. In this context, this paper deals specifically with bio-waste. Bio-waste produced in Germany is divided into the following most important partial flows: ‱ Bio-waste and green waste (garden cuttings, etc.) from municipal collection ‱ Landscape maintenance materials ‱ Other organic waste, especially food waste from industry and commerce
Thermal Waste Treatment Plant Spittelau – New Construction to the Existing Plant –
Dr.-Ing. Frank Schumacher, Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Philipp Krobath, Ing. Erich Pawelka, Ing. Ulrich Ponweiser, Dipl.-Ing. Martin Höbler
The thermal waste treatment plant Spittelau is steeped in history and tradition. It is one out of four municipal solid waste incinerations plants in Vienna. The plant was built from 1969 until 1971 for the purpose of thermal utilization of municipal waste and household-type commercial waste as well as energy supply of the new General Hospital Vienna two kilometres away via district heating. The plant was equipped with two hot-water boilers to ensure heat supply at all times. Although it is located in the town-centre of Vienna its architectural structure did not differ significantly from the traditional plant structure.
Turkey Achieves EU Standards till 2023
Professor Dr.-Ing. Oktay Tabasaran
Turkey as a candidate for EU membership has within a decade managed to effectively develop its economy, stabilize the banking sector and maintain the indebtedness of the state low. It currently represents the sixth largest economy in Europe. Globally it is standing in the sixteenth place. The negative balance of payments is classified as problematic, a major part of the deficit is due to energy imports (natural gas, oil).
Incineration is a Process Step in Recycling Processes
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Dr. h. c. Karl J. Thomé-Kozmiensky
The Act for Promoting Closed Substance Cycle Waste Management from 24th February 2012 as per article 2 paragraph 25 includes the following definition for recycling: In the purposes of this Act, recycling means any recovery operation by which waste is processed into products, materials or substances whether for the original purpose or for other purpose. It includes the reprocessing of organic material but does not include energy recovery and the reprocessing into materials that are intended for the use as fuels or for backfilling.
Balancing and Energy Efficiency of Waste Treatment Processes
Professor Dr.-Ing. Michael Beckmann, Dipl.-Ing. Tobias Widder
Energy efficiency is an effectiveness criterion for the evaluation of processes, plants and systems. It implies a statement about the used energy in relation to the input energy, but it cannot provide any information concerning the kind or quality of the input energy.
Refuse Derived Fuel Gasification Technologies for High Efficient Energy Production
Dr. Markus Bolhar-Nordenkampf, Dipl.-Ing. Juhani Isaksson
There is an increasing demand for replacing primary resources in manufacturing and fossil fuels in energy production with competitive and renewable alternatives. At the same time, many countries still landfill the majority of their municipal solid waste, causing significant environmental challenges and wasting a valuable resource. Waste is not only a problem to get rid of, but a source of valuable raw materials and competitive alternative to fossil fuels. By adopting an integrated solution for waste management and energy production, a municipality can reduce the environmental impact of waste and increase its revenues from recycling and energy sales. An integrated approach starts with efficient sorting of waste to separate recyclates and wet biowaste. Residual waste is pretreated in a recycling facility to recover remaining recyclates and produce a refuse derived fuel (RDF) for efficient energy recovery. Also energy intensive industries are looking at using RDF to replace fossil fuels.
Paradigm Shift in the British Waste Management Sector – from Landfilling to Incineration –
Paul Carey
Twenty years ago, in 1994, the UK was still coming to terms with the advent of new legislation, principally the Environmental Protection Act 1990, under which many local government waste management operations were transferred to arm’s length companies, some of which were subsequently wholly or partly privatized. Other operations were the subject of public tenders in which the private sector to part. The author was involved in one of the first privately funded and operated energy from waste projects for Hampshire County Council, being a 400,000 tpa facility planned for Portsmouth.
Application of Anaerobic Digestion for the Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in Several Projects
Dipl.-oec. Univ. Martin Hagenmeyer
In a circular economy there can be no place for waste announced EU Environmental Commissioneer Janez Potocnik in his opening speech for the green week in June 2014 in Brussels. This year®s topic Circular Economy – saving resources, creating jobs showed a clear sign and dedicated this years congress in the opening speech to the circular and resource economy and therewith to the waste management economy. In the resolutions taken at environmental summit conferences in the last 20 years priority focus was always given to closed circular economy processes to save natural resources and to reduce CO2 emissions, which have their origin in the use of fossile fuels. This aspect has been taken over by the European Union long time ago and the EU directive 1999/31/EC where article 5 considers the limitation of organic materials to be landfilled.
Review of the Best Available Techniques Reference Document (BREF) for Waste Incineration and Interactions with other BREFs
Simon Holbrook
Synopsis of presentation by the Joint Research Centre’s European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Bureau
Reviewing EU Waste Legislation: A Stepping Stone Towards a Circular Economy
Karl-Friedrich Falkenberg
Global demand for resources continues to grow, driven by an increasing world population and improving standards of living. In the 20th century, the world experienced a four-fold population growth and a 23-fold increase in economic output. Almost all predictions are that resource demand will continue upwards. The world’s population is expected to exceed nine billion by 2050, and by 2030 there will be three times the current number of people with middle class consumption levels in the now-developing world. Global extraction of resources is expected to increase by 75 percent in the next 25 years.
Optical Sorting for the Recovery of Glass from WIP Slags – Pilot Plant in Bratislava –
Dipl.-HTL-Ing. Christian Makari
Today, the sensor-based detection and separation of recyclable materials is an important component of waste processing and the recovery of raw materials worldwide. Cullet especially is an important secondary raw material and indispensable for economic and competitive hollow glass production. The more broken glass material is put into the melt, the less energy is required and fewer additives have to be used. Modern furnace designs and strict exhaust values are based on using up to eighty percent of glass fraction. With such a high proportion of glass content, the cullet quality should be appropriately high so that the melting chemistry is not adversely influenced and so as to avoid malfunctions or even hazards in the production process.
Waste Generation and Disposal Methods in Emerging Countries
Ayman Elnaas, Dr.-Ing. Abdallah Nassour, Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles
Solid waste is an environmental problem in both developed and developing countries. The typical problem in Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) of developing countries can be identified as inadequate service coverage and operational inefficiencies of services, limited utilization of recycling activities, inadequate landfill capacity, and inadequate management of hazardous and healthcare waste. In recent years, most developing countries have started to improve their municipal solid waste management practices. Different countries have adopted different strategies for reaching their goals, be it by applying advanced environmental technologies and extending recycling and reuse. Sustainable waste management will have to consider all possible options for the reduction of the negative impact of consumption.
Mechanical-Biological Stabilisation Plant in Fusina near Venice/Italy (260,000 t/y) – Twelve Years of Operating Experience –
Dr.-Ing. Simone Paoli
This report is to illustrate the yield and the balance of utilization of the RDF produced at the Fusina integrated pole, comparing it with what is known about the waste combustion in incineration plants. The material and energy balances resulting from a monitoring during twelve years or running are to be used in the following comparisons. Those balances prove the convenience of the process from the energetic point of view, also considering that the privileged outlet for the co-combustion of the produced RDF will be the thermo electrical power plant of Fusina.
Waste-to-Energy Plant as Part of Combined Heat and Power Strategy – Using the Example of the Klaipeda Case –
Kalle-Erkki PenttilÀ
According to current plans EU will in future strongly promote the circular economy. Aim is to use resources more efficiently with ambitious target to increase resource productivity by thirty percent by 2030. This means less waste sent to landfills and new requirements for more sustainable waste treatment.
Concepts for Processing Solid Recovered Fuels of Different Waste Origins for Waste-to-Energy Plants
Ing. JĂŒrgen Deditz, Ing. Michael Pinkel, Univ.-Prof. DI Dr. mont. Roland Pomberger
Waste-to-energy plants represent a major building block in a coordinated waste management system. To make the best use of the energy content in waste, the alternative fuels recovered are used in the most varied plants. The applications range from the main burner in a cement plant to the traditional grate combustion plant. In line with this, the preparation processes are also very heavily dependent on the requirements – parameters – of the relevant fuel, taking into account its area of application.
High Efficient Waste-to-Energy Facilities
Inger Anette SĂžndergaard, Tore Hulgaard, Lasse Tobiasen
All countries in Europe are working hard to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels in their power and district heating production. However, for many years to come a large share of the energy supply will continue to be based on fossil fuels. Therefore, waste-to-energy (WtE) facilities will also in the future make an important contribution to reaching the climate goals, and high energy efficiency will remain mandatory for all waste treatment facilities in order to maximise utilisation of the European energy resources and limit the climate impact of energy production.
Waste Gasification Technology with Direct Melting for Energy and Material Recovery
Nobuhiro Tanigaki, Yoshihiro Ishida
Gasification of municipal solid waste has been widely researched all over the world and is recognized as an alternative thermal technology for waste treatment. The Direct Melting System is shaft-furnace type gasification and melting technology for various kinds of wastes. It has more than forty references and has been operated for 35 years. This gasification technology is employed to treat municipal solid waste with various kinds of wastes such as sewage sludge, clinical waste or incineration bottom ash and can achieve both the energy and material recovery from waste in one process.
ADR – a New Method for Dry Classification
Walter de Vries, Professor Dr. Peter C. Rem, Peter M. Berkhout
In processing MSWI‐bottom‐ash (IBA) and C&D‐waste (CDW) problems in classification and separation occur when handling the zero to twelve millimeter fraction. These problems are caused by fines (0 to 2 mm) and the moisture associated with these fines. In this paper results are presented of an experimental study into the effects of a new type of classification unit, called Advanced Dry Recovery (ADR). In this study the particle size distribution and moisture content of the materials produced by the ADR are analyzed. It was found that more than 70 percent of the fines were removed from the produced material.
Layout Planning of Waste-to-Energy Plants
Dipl.-Ing. Falko Weber
The layout planning of waste incineration and solid recovered fuel power plants is subject to certain local and project-specific boundary conditions alongside the technical ones. The results of this planning have significant influence on the functionality and operation of the plant, as well as on other criteria.
Waste Management in the Metropolis of Istanbul – Waste Incineration and Energy Production Facility in Istanbul –
Senol Yildiz, Vahit Balahorli, Fatih HoƟoğlu, Kadir Sezer
The Municipality uses 3R’s, Composting, Biodrying and Landfill methods for management of solid wastes within Istanbul city boundaries. Among these methods, Landfill has the major portion with eighty percent. Sustainability is the most significant issue to consider in Integrated Waste Management. Disposal of wastes through landfill method is more economical compared to other disposal methods; however, decrease in capacity of available sanitary landfill sites, failure in finding suitable land for establishing new landfill sites and land shortage are factors obstructing implementation of this method.
Experiences in new EU Accession Countries
Gerhard Ziehenberger, Dipl.-Ing. Michaela Heigl, Richard Dornauer, Mag. Dr. Hannes Klampfl-Pernold
Waste management in modern societies is passing through several development stages. However, the transition of waste management from a pure disposal management over a more or less controlled waste management towards a resource efficient material flow management offers great challenges for all stakeholders involved in the process.
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