Waste Management, Volume 3


The Role of Brussels in Waste Legislation throughout the European Union
Patrick Clerens, Dipl.-Phys. Ph.D. Edmund Fleck, Guillaume Perron-Piché
The EU's influence on environmental legislation in Europe is hard to understate. It is assumed that over 80% of all legislation touching environmental issues in the EU is actually derived from EU Directives or other EU Actions.
The EU Landfill Directive
Dr. Wolfram Schwetzel
The European legislator has targeted the environmental risks and dangers of landfills with the Directive 1999/31/ECÂą on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). In order to cope with the dangers of landfills, uniform structures were created by way of the landfill directive.
WEEE Recast - Status and Prospect
Helmut Minor, Maximilian Scheppach
Electrical and electronic appliances are a fast growing product Group with high diversification. The products contain recyclable material as metals, Plastics and rare earths, but also materials, inter alia in hte glass of Picture tubes, fridges, LCD-Screens and Computer boards. Their proper disposal, especially in the non-OECD countries, is a particular challenge for the Environment and health protection.¹ The european Community has therefore put in place the Directive 2002/96/EG for electrical and electronic waste Equipment (WEEE-Directive) on 13th February 2003.²
VKU Opinion on the Study Bio Intelligence Service to the European Commission (GD ENV) on Implementing EU Waste Legislation for Green Growth
Dr. jur. Holger Thärichen, Dr.-Ing. Martin Gehring
Environmental legislation is mostly established as a Framework at European Level. It thus defines the conditions for the activities of Member States as well as local waste Management utilities. VKU welcomes the fact that the authors of the study "Implementing EU Waste Legislation for Green Growth"¹ acknowledge the important role of local and regional public entities for the implementation of the EU waste legislation.
Requirements for High Quality Recovery in German Waste Legislation
Prof. Dr. Andrea Versteyl
The centre of German waste legislation is formed by the so-called Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz, (ff. abbrev. KrWG) translating approximately to "cycle waste management act". This new legal provision is to implement the Waste Framework Directive (WFD)¹ and one of its main features - the European waste hierarchy - into German law. The criterion of high quality recovery or rather the priority of high quality recovery is to be found in §² 8 III S. 3 KrWG and mirrors § 5 II S. 3 of the former cycle waste management and waste act (Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz ff. abbrev. Krw-/AbfG).
Waste Framework Directive - EU Compliant Implementation by the Hungarian Act for Promoting Environmental Sound Waste Management
Professor Dr. habil. Zoltán Illés
One of the most fundamental changes in the new European Union's new waste Management legislation is that the former waste legislation mainly focused on the avoidance of the negative health and environmental Impacts, while the new Directive strongly emphasises waste prevention.
Recent Municipal Waste Management Legislation in Poland
Dr. jur. Anja Schäfer, Dr. Karolina Kapsa
By amending the Act on Maintaining Cleanliness and Order in Municipalities¹ (Municipal Waste Act in short), it became mandatory in Poland from 1 January 2012 for municipal waste to be surrendered to public waste management authorities. The amending Act² containing these provisions was passed by Polish legislators on 1 July 2011, after many years of debate.³ The most important amendments and the consequences resulting from them are described in this article.
Fourty Years of Waste Management in Germany - A Success Story with a few Errors
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Dr. h. c. Karl J. Thomé-Kozmiensky
Following the Second World War, along with rising prosperity, the amount and quality of waste also changed. Waste disposal was characterised by substantial deficits regarding the treatment capacity and the quality of the treatment plants. The few plants that were in existence did not adhere to the necessary standards regarding their technology, hygiene and environmental protection.
Situation and Prospects of Waste Management in the Republic of Turkey
Professor Dr.-Ing. Oktay Tabasaran
The Republic of Turkey, with about 75 million inhabitants on an area of 74.724.269 kmsup2; and since 1999 a candidate for membership in the European Union, is currently economically the seventeenth strongest country in the world. In Europe it is the sixth largest economy. In 2011, the GDP (purchasing power parity) was approximately $ 1.026 trillion and the gross national product amounted to $ 763.1 billion. The growth rate amounted to 8.2% in 2010 and to 4.6% in 2011. The expected rates are for 2012 about 3.25% and for 2013 approximately 4.50%.
Waste Management Research in a Future Megacity - Experiences from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
o. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Kranert, Nicolás Escalante Mora, Dipl.-Geogr. Agata Rymkiewicz
The article explores the current situation of the waste management system in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. As in most urban centers in developing countries, in Addis Ababa the fate of postconsumer materials, organic waste and other residuals is not well known. This is a result of the lack of a system of data collection throughout the waste management chain. Since there is no systematic recording and assessment of the amount of waste collected and transporte by the municipal or private enterprises, and the final disposal site lacks a weighing bridge to register the amount of residues landfilled, there is almost no robust data that helps assess the performance of the waste management system.
Polish Waste-to-Energy Projects and their Perspectives
Prof. Ph. D., Eur. Ing. (Dr.-Ing. habil.) Tadeusz Pajak
The starting point of the paper was to characterise the current condition of the polish municpal waste management and to outline the most important challenges in this scope. the main part of the paper presents an overview and assessment of the current advancement of Polish construction projects of municpal waste thermal treatment facilities/waste-to-energy projects.
Danish Experience in Developing an Integrated Approach to Separate Collection and Central Sorting of Valuable Recyclables from the MSW
M.Sc. Civ Eng Torben Kristiansen, M.Sc. Civ. Eng. Jens Bjørn Jakobsen
The paper presents experience from several larger Danish municipalities/regions where a rethink of the current system of separate collection and subsequent marketing of recyclable materials parallel to biological and thermal treatment of the bio-fraction/residual fraction has resulted in a planned new approach to combined separate collection of the MSW followed by central sorting of recyclables thereby focussing on resource efficiency, affordability, citizens service and meeting sustainability targets using life cycle assessment and economic tools for optimising and informing the choice of integrated and multi-stringed recycling and waste management systems for MSW.
Potentials of Biowaste Recovery in the Czech Republic
Professor Ing. Ph.D. Dagmar Juchelková, Professor Ing. Helena Raclavská
The matter of biological byproducts exploitation is discussed in the Czech Republic for several reasons. One of them is a necessity to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste dumped in a disposal site and another one is an effort to increase the exploitation of renewable energy sources for both electric and heat energy production.
The Market of Waste Management Technologies in Central and Eastern Europe until 2020
Dipl.-Kfm. Dirk Briese, Dr. habil. Hilmar Westholm
Many Central and Eastern European countries are under pressure because of their accession to the European Community (EC) and the related demands e.g. to reach the necessary standards of infrastructure especially regarding the environmental sector. Similarly, Eastern European states that are (currently) not willing or prepared to join the EC such as Ukraine or Russia are starting to develop a national waste management infrastructure.
German RETech Partnership (RETech) - German Recycling Technologies and Waste Management Partnership e.V.
Dr. Dipl.-Kfm. Armin Vogel
The German RETech Partnership was founded as an association in December 2011 by leading representatives of German recycling businesses and associated academies. The primary objective of the association is to successfully export he concept of "Recycling and Waste Management - Made in Germany" as a product and to establish, promote and develop a modern international waste management constitution.
Fields of Research in Optical Sorting of Different Types of Waste
Dr. Antoine Bourely
Optical sorting appeared for the first time in 1994 in Germany, France and in the USA. Initially, it was limited to the recognition of the main packaging types, as found in the "yellow bin", using the NIR spectroscopy to differentiate molecular bonds: PET, HDPE, PVC, Tetrapak were the main targets. Colour sorting was later introduced for very fine colour nuances (e.g. clear vs light blue bottles). Today, most MRFs in Europe use Optical Sorting for packaging.
XRF - New Applications in Sensor-Based-Sorting Using X-ray Flourescence
Dipl.-Ing. Martin Weiss
In recent decades, waste management has developed from simply waste disposal towards waste treatment, waste recovery and recycling. Even though waste collection has reached a high standard and many different waste streams are collected separately, an after-treatment is required. Each waste stream is more or less polluted with undesired types of materials making the treatment of collected waste in certain plants obligatory.
Material Flow-Based Optimization of Process Chains (Move Rec)
Dr. Maria Noel Dos Santos, DI Markus Spitzbart, Dipl.-Ing. Michael Weinlich, Ing. Mag. Thomas Leitner
The variety of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) makes it difficult to determine the material composition of mixed composite inputs. Most of the types of equipment collected are of a very complex device structure, mechanical parts and electronic compnents, which imply a diverse composite material composition. Besides iron and nonferrous metals, a variety of non-metallic components of some electronic devices contain precoious metals and rare earths. On the other hand, most devices contain hazardous components, which need a specific treatment and/or a controlled waste disposal process.
Post-Consumer Plastic Packaging Waste - How to Increase the Yield and Reduce the Cost
Dr. Eggo Ulphard Thoden van Velzen
Recycling schemes for post-consumer plastic packaging waste are politically motivated, create environmental benefits for the society and increase the business costs in general. These recycling schemes are shaped by the local presence of converting industries that are able to use the recyclates as raw materials. Choices for recycling schemes should therefore be based on the expected compliance, efficiency (the lowest environmental impacts for the least costs) and the present local industry.
Recovery of Plastics from Household Waste by Mechanical Separation
Dipl.-Ing. Michael Jansen, Dr. Alexander Feil, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thomas Pretz
Plastic packaging in the waste of private households used to be incinerated in the Netherlands until the end of 2008. In January 2009, a source separation system for plastic packaging waste (PPW) was established to reduce the amount of residual waste and secure access to secondary resources. Between 2009 and beginning of 2011 three mechanical-biological treatment plants started to recover PPW from municipal solid refuse waste of some municipalities.
Challenges of Mixed Plastics Recovery from MSW Sources in the United Kingdom
Dr.-Ing. Benjamin Eule
Part of the integrated waste management approach in the United Kingdom is a mechanical pre-treatment of MSW prior to either EfW (Energy from Waste) or AD (Anaerobic Digestion). As a consequence of the pre-treatment some unwanted material is being separated form the primary target material, and in most cases this material contains some valuable sub grades. One of these sub grades is mixed plastic. The amount and quality of recoverable mixed plastics within MSW depends firstly on the collection and transfer and storage scheme prior to the mechanical pre-treamtent and secondly on the consumer and education from the Local Authority who is ultimately responsible for the local or regional waste management strategy and education.
Plastic Waste Recovery in Spain - Overview of the Market and Applied Technologies
Ing. Beatriz Ferreira Pozo, Ing. CĂ©sar Aliaga Baquero, Ing. Juan Luis MartĂ­ Arbona, Dr.-Ing. Mercedes Hortal Ramos
Plastic consumption in different Spanish industrial sectors was 2.840.000 tonnes in 2010 and generated approxomately 2.206.000 tonnes of plastic waste in 2010. About 23% of this waste was recycled and 17% recovered, being landfilled about 60% [2].
Recovery of Recyclables from Municipal Solid Waste - Experiences from Poland and Cyprus
Dipl.-Ing. Dipl.-Wirt.-Ing. Oliver Lambertz
A high amount of recyclable materials is still landfilled in many European countries. Against this backdrop mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) was previously considered to be purely a residual waste stream, but now it is increasingly being looked at as a valuable source for recyclable fractions.
Implementation of a Recovery System with Optimized Interfaces - The Total Plastic Concept
Dr. Joachim Christiani, Dipl.-Ing. Martin Bender
The German system for recovery of mixed dry recyclables has been established in the early 90s. It was installed to increase the recycling rates additional to the already existing system: the separate collection of papaer and glass.
Waste Incineration in the 21st Century - Energy-Efficient and Climate-Friendly Recycling Plant and Pollutant Sink
Dipl.-Phys. Ph.D. Edmund Fleck
The first waste incineeration plants in Europe were built in the middle of the 19th century. Hygiene played an important role, because plagues had again and again hit many countries, cost numerous lives.
Development of Waste-to-Energy Projects
Dipl. Chem. Ing. Luciano Pelloni
Waste-to-energy plants contribute substantially to achieve the goal of a reliable, sustainable and efficient disposal of waste. Recovery of energy and valuable material is an additional benefit. Before starting the technical elaboration, the non-technical questions have to be answered. They are strongly dependent on local boundary conditions. For the financial aspects some general hints are given as well as rules of thumbs. The technical evaluation bases on system analysis and comparison of operational, design, energetic and environmental criteria.
Acceptance and Realisation of Waste-to-Energy Projects - Communications of the Project Management with Politics and Concerned Persons
Paul Davison
The real control over the success rate for building new EfW plants is not how well we communicate the technology to hosting communities, but their perception of the risk from that technology.
How to Operate as Technology Provider and Contractor in the International EfW World
Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Ing. Gerhard Lohe
The classic main markets in Europe for EfW plants have come close to a point of saturation. Legislation and many efforts spent over the past years to introduce an environmentally friendly disposal of municipal solid waste resulted in a network of plants and capacities of which a major extension may not be expected anymore.
Sewage Sludge Treatment in Europe – an Overview
Katrin Bauerfeld
With the implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC, municipal sludge production has increased steadily in the EU during the last decade, although reduced water consumption and increased sludge treatment in some memberstates may have caused a stagnation or even slight decrease in sludge production (e.g. Germany, Austria, Sweden). Based on data provided to the European Commission for the 2002 – 2006 period, about 9.7 million Mg sludge solids are produced in the EU each year, 8.7 million Mg in EU-15 and an additional 1.0 million Mg in the new member states. Nearly 70 % of the total sludge mass is produced in Germany, UK, Italy, Spain and France. Until 2020, annual EU sludge production is expected to increase by 30 % up to 13 million Mg dried solids.
New Methods for the Characterisation of Refuse Derived Fuels and Waste
Dipl.-Ing. Julia Behling, Dipl.-Ing. Burkhard KrĂĽger, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Philipp Danz, Dr. Thomas Marzi, Dr.-Ing Siegmar Wirtz
Two different ways of utilisation evolved in the combustion of waste. On the one hand untreated waste is disposed directly in mono-incineration plants, exploiting only part of the energy contained. On the other hand waste may be pretreated such that high calorific components can be separated and combusted separately with higher efficiency or better energy recovery. These are the so-called Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF).
Landfills as a Pollution Sink in an Environmentally Sound Recycling Management
Dr.-Ing. Heinz-Ulrich Bertram
The vision of a full recycling economy disregards the fact that landfills are indispensable asa pollution sink in an environmentally sound recycling management. Waste Management will continue to require landfills in the future. In order to avoid erroneous developments, an integral concept for an all-encompassing waste management is needed.
Mechanical-Biological Waste Treatment Plant in Tychy/Poland
Dipl.-Ing. Thomas BĂĽchner, Dipl.-Ing. Edmund Spaniol
Waste management is a developing sector – Poland is on the way. The public´s educationand subsequent acceptance are essential elements of success of any waste management program. Further developments in these activities are necessary. This is an absolute necessity, especially with regard to the separate collection of glass and bio-waste. Inert material should be reduced at the sources by suitable measures as much as possible.
Composting and Fermentation of Biowaste – Contribution to reduce Greenhouse Gases –
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Carsten Cuhls
Gewitra company carried out R&D project of the German federal environmental agency (UBA) on determining gaseous emissions from different types of large scale Treatment plants for bio waste in Germany: open windrow, in-vessel systems and composting plants with integrated anaerobic digestion step. Measurement data of emission control are VOC (FID), CH4, NH3 and N2O; emission factors and CO2-Equivalents (CH4 factor GWP 25, N2O factor GWP 298) will be calculated as well.
Anaerobic Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste in Europe – Status, Experience and Prospects –
Luc de Baere, Bruno Mattheeuws
Anaerobic digestion has come of age in the field of the treatment of the organic fraction derived from municipal solid waste, more so than any other alternative treatment Technology developed in the last 20 years. With a total of 244 plants and a capacity of almost 8 million ton of organics treatment capacity, anaerobic digestion is already taking care of about 25 % of the biological treatment in Europe. In The Netherlands and Belgium, it is expected that 80 % of the composting plants will have anaerobic digestion as the primary treatment technology by the year 2015. Long term successful experience has made anaerobic digestion the preferred treatment technology for the MSW organics, making use of a variety of technological approaches and systems. It can only be expected that anaerobic Digestion will continue to increase on a steady basis, not only because of the production of renewable energy but also because of the reduction in odor potential and surface area required.
Mechanical-Biological Waste Treatment – an International Overview –
Lothar Deyerling, Brian E. Fuchs
The article demonstrated a solid background and a great performance in affordable waste treatment technology. Achieving the strict stabilization criteria’s with the technology invarious countries, the know-how of the partner and fit for use GORE Cover made its way from the early days. At the given experience, not only in Germany, a cost effective and sustainable approach by choosing treatment technologies is key in the future MSW treatment to our point of view. However, even if a fully encapsulated plant is desired to what ever reason – reference plants even on this specific request are available.
Optimization and Designing of Modern Waste-to-Energy Plants
Dipl.-Ing. Michael Feldmann, Dipl.-Ing. Michael Marcius
About 400 waste incineration boilers with a total incineration capacity of approx. 45,000 tons of waste per hour exist in Germany today. Germany is well provided with waste-to-energy plants, there is no demand for further Expansion currently. The same applies to RDF-(refuse-derived-fuel) plants: the incineration capacity to utilize RDF is sufficient for its production in Germany.
Anaerobic Digestion of Industrial Organic Waste with the Horizontal Plug-Flow Digester – Two-Year Operation Experience of a Dry Fermentation Plant –
Dr.-Ing. Yucheng Feng
Both the treatment of solid waste and the energy transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy are the urgent and crucial issues that are confronted worldwide. Using anaerobic digestion processes to convert biodegradable solid waste into fertiliser and energy can be the appropriate solution that is beneficial to both issues. This article gives a deep analysis about a dry fermentation plant with a horizontal plug-flow digester, which treats diverse sorts of industrial organic waste. Two-year successful operating experience demonstrates that the dry fermentation technology is suitable to treat and utilise the industrial organic waste, even if the sorts and amounts of feedstock vary constantly. Our experience also shows that the anaerobic digestion of industrial and commercial organic waste is the new trend worldwide and its markets are developing rapidly. Meanwhile, it is lack of all-embracing legislations and economic techniques regarding the treatment and utilisation of digestate, which hinders the development of biogas industry.
Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge – State of the Art and Evaluation of the Variants –
Jörn Franck, Dipl.-Ing. Josef Lux, Dr.-Ing. Guomin Zhang, Ralf Wittstock
The future disposal of sewage sludge in agriculture or on landfills will no longer prevail due to environmental impacts which will enforce legal restrictions. Therefore, sustainable and environmentally friendly alternatives are required. The thermal treatment of sewage sludge has been established successfully in Central Europe and offers such an alternative. In an evaluation of different process variants which are offered today, it has been shown, that the most preferred system for large scale mono-combustion of sewage sludge is the incineration in stationary fluidized bed system. An effective means of sludge pre-treatmentand energy recovery from the drying process can increases the energy benefits of the procedure significantly.
Variations of Flue Gas Cleaning Systems in Waste to Energy Plants
Dipl.-Ing. Christian Fuchs
The range of available Flue Gas Cleaning Systems spreads from simple systems like the Dry Sorption to complex multistage Wet Scrubbing Systems, which even may be combined to form Hybrides to fulfill very particular economic or technical conditions. Within the spectrum in principle every requirement can be fulfilled. Before each planning has to be made an assessment with all relevant criteria for this particular project. This is the only way to choose the most advantageous technology for this Project.
Gasification and Pyrolysis – Reliable Options for Waste Treatment?
Dipl.-Ing. Markus Gleis
Future-oriented waste management concepts should combine economic and ecological requirements. Within this context, the pyrolysis or gasification of high calorific waste fractions can, in combination with the existing or newly built power plants and industrial furnaces, offer an alternative technical solution, provided that it is mainly used for selected high calorific waste and waste fuels.
Metal Recycling at Waste Incineration Plants and Mechanical Waste Treatment Plants
Dr.-Ing. Alexander Gosten
Whether the treatment and sorting facility for metal recycling is right next to a waste incineration plant, or whether this is done at the treatment facility of a dedicated company, is a business decision that has to be taken by each incineration plant individually. Systemically this is of lower priority, although the additional costs for transport will have to be taken into consideration in the climate Balance.
Collection, Treatment and Use of Bio-Waste
Dr. Peter Kersandt
Article 22 sentence 1 lit. a) of the Waste Framework Directive (WFD) orders member states to take measures to encourage the separate collection of bio-waste leading to composting and digestion. According to Article 3 No 4 WFD the term bio-waste encompasses garden and park waste, food and kitchen waste from households, restaurants, caterers and retail premises and comparable waste from food processing plants. The term is more precise than just mere biodegradable waste, comprising other biodegradable material such as natural textile fibers, paper, cardboard or waste from wood processing.
Construction and Operating Experiences of the RHKW Linz (Austria)
Dr. techn. Dipl.-Ing. Philipp Kolbitsch, Dipl.-Ing. Florian Madl, Ing. Bruno Ronald Wachter
Strabag Energy Technologies provides fluidised bed boiler solutions for biomass, waste and other residue derived fuels with steam capacities from 30 to 160 t/h. The combustion system has been developed to allow maximum flexibility in the range of fuels. Beside environmentally sound combustion with low emissions, maximum boiler efficiency is the main target. In this paper the operating experience of a new installed RDF-fired plant with high fuel flexibility in Linz/Austria is presented.
Biomethane Production – Input Material, Technology and Energetic Utilization –
Dr.-Ing. Dieter Korz
The production of biomethane and its feeding into the existing natural gas grids is an interesting alternative compared to the conventional electricity and heat production from biogasin co-generation units directly on the location of the biogas plant. Thus the biogas can be better utilized energetically either by central cogeneration of heat and power, utilization as fuel for vehicles or by direct utilization by the end-consumer. Also, by the substitution of natural gas we reduce our dependency on imports from foreign natural gas deliveries. Germany has the lead role in Europe in the production of biomethane and biomethane is already fed into the natural gas grid at numerous locations. Most other European countries do have remuneration systems for electricity, but unfortunately there are not yet any precise legal regulations for the biomethane feeding into existing gas grids. Germany can be pioneer and can offer support based on their long experience during the establishment of appropriate legal basic parameters in other European countries. However, political commitment must also be shown in order to realize this way of utilization of biogas. Biomethane is the most flexible regenerative energy source which can be utilized in different variations and especially with the highest Efficiency.
Combining WTE and Solar Power – New Solutions for Sustainable Energy Generation –
Valerie Martin, Dipl.-Ing. Stefan Pomp, Dr. Oliver Gohlke
The transition to renewable energy production in Europe poses a significant challenge: According to EU directives, renewable energies should reach at least 20 % of final energy consumption by 2020. In order to achieve this goal, all sectors of the economy should work on the development of new integrated concepts in order to ensure a climate-friendly energy supply in the future.
Upgrading Aspects of Standard Sewage Sludge Mono-Incineration Plants
Dr.-Ing. Dieter MĂĽller, Ludwig Hermann
In the past few decades the disposal of sewage sludge has been subject to the development and testing of various treatment strategies. Beyond the direct exploitation of sewage sludge for agriculture use – which is more and more under critical discussion due to hygienic critical, endocrine and persistent substances endangering the subterranean water resources – the thermal treatment of sludge proved to be a feasible and sustainable solution.
Waste-to-Energy Process Concepts for Different Markets – Selected Application Examples
Dipl.-Ing. Günter Nebocat, Dr.-Ing. Margit Löschau
The growing human population of the world goes along with a growing generation of waste and residues. Population growth often is paralleled by increased wealth which typically results in a rising waste generation per capita. This additionally boosts the rapid increase of the amount of waste that needs to be dealt with. Municipal solid waste usually is in the forefront of the development as it brings large quantities as well as great potential to create nuisances if not disposed of in a controlled way.
Shaping the Future with Mechanical-Biological Waste Treatment – A Successful Example for –
Dipl.-Geol. Andreas Puchelt
Waste avoidance, conservation of resources and efficient use of recyclable materials are among the most urgent challenges and tasks of our time. The importance of environmental awareness and sustainability is increasing on a daily basis. Our company has been successfully tackling these challenges for more than 40 years, and today we are a leading partner in the international wood and recycling business, with numerous subsidiaries and sales offices worldwide.
Biogas from Landfills or Anaerobic Digestion Plants in China – Comparison for Biomass Wastes in China –
Prof. Dr. habil. Bernhard Raninger, Professor Dr. Hongjun Zhou
China is currently facing the most rapid urbanization in the global history but environmental protection, national energy security, renewable energy and climate change issues have to be tackled in order to ensure a sustainable socioeconomic development. China faces a rapid development in MSW generation. The overall waste generation is increasing accordingly. Even though it’s specific per capita amount of waste is still half of the one in Germany, China is, due to its size and large population, since 2004 the globally largest waste producer. The application of biogas from various biomass sources for the generation of energy and organic compounds from biomethane (bio-refinery) are going to play an important role in China’s attempts to achieve ecological and economic stability.
A New Thermo-Chemical Approach for the Recovery of Phosphorus from Sewage Sludge
Matthias Rapf, Univ. Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. Harald Raupenstrauch, Dr.-Ing. Carla Cimatoribus, o. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Kranert
In order to utilise sewage sludge as phosphorus resource, several wet-chemical and thermochemical techniques have been developed so far, yet only few seem promising for large-scale implementation. In the EU-funded research project RecoPhos starting in March 2012, the Montanuniversitaet Leoben, the University of Stuttgart and eight partners from the industry will develop a new P-recovery process that produces phosphoric acid, a calcium-silicate slag and an iron alloy, all resources for the industry. The chemical principle, the Woehler reaction, will be realised on the chemically reacting packed bed of the so-called InduCarb retort.The ashes can be pre-purified in a reductive melt reactor connected upstream, using alternative heat sources like dried sludge.
Sewage Sludge Utilisation Alternatives – Comparative Analysis Using Life-Cycle Assessment –
Dipl.-Geoökologe Joachim Reinhardt, Dipl.-Biol. Horst Fehrenbach
In an overview of a variety of life-cycle assessments dealing with sewage sludge the trend showing that agricultural use is less favourable compared to incineration is reinforced. The principal disadvantages comprise a considerably higher contaminant input into the environmental medium soil, and higher acidification and eutrophication due to the increased ammonia release from agriculturally utilised sewage sludge compared to inorganic fertilisers. The various alternatives, the majority of which are based on incineration methods, in turn display numerous advantages and disadvantages compared to each other.
The Role of Waste Incineration in Decentralised Energy Concepts in the Example of Plymouth
Dr.-Ing. Johannes Günther, Dipl.-Ing. Uwe Zickert, Dr. Hansjörg Roll
The MVV Umwelt Group with headquarter in Mannheim develops, constructs and operates Energy from waste plants and biomass fuelled power plants. MVV Umwelt is a subsidiary of MVV Energie AG, a stock listed utilities company. The City of Mannheim is the majority shareholder and through that link the company is a unique blend of public and private ownership. The plants of the company have a total incineration capacity of approx. 1.4 million tonnes a year. The current operating sites are located in Mannheim (combined heat and power plant 650,000 t/a waste; biomass power plant 130,000 t/a waste wood), Leuna (EfW plant 400,000 t/a waste), Flörsheim Wicker (biomass power plant 100,000 t/a waste wood) and Königs Wusterhausen (biomass power plant 120,000 t/a waste wood).
Co-Incineration of Sludge in a Circulating Fluidized Bed
Dipl.-Ing. Johannes Sbaschnigg, Dipl.-Ing. Helmut Anderl, Dr. Sebastian Kaiser, Dipl.-Ing. Matthias Zöhrer
Operating results show that the co-incineration of sludge with higher calorific fuels, such as coal, biomass or residue derived fuel (RDF) in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers has good operating characteristic and is in general a practical method for thermal sludge disposal. This study focuses on three circulating fluidized bed boiler plants in Germany that co-incinerate various fiber processing sludge, inherently composed of poorly biodegradable cellulose and lignin, and their related operational experience. The operating datashow varying impacts on the plant performance, mechanical load and emission values depending on the sludge composition and co-incineration share. In particular fiber sludge with high ash and limestone contents affect heating surface cleaning cycles and Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions.
ECN-QAS – A European Quality Assurance Scheme in respect to End-of-Waste Criteria for Compost and Digestate
Dr. Stefanie Siebert
Quality assurance schemes for compost and digestion products have been established themselves in the last 20 years successfully in various European Member States as a key element for the sustainable recycling of organic residues. The market and demand for quality composts increased on account of the beneficial properties of organic fertilisers and soil improvers, the need for organic matter and continuously increasing prices for mineral fertilisers. This development and also the intention by the European Commission to define an End-of-Waste standard for compost and digestate led to a demand for a European uniform Quality standard for compost plants and composted products. The European Compost Network ECN met this challenge and developed a concept for a European quality assurance scheme within its working group Standardisation and Quality Assurance. This concept includes the characterisation of quality standards for recycled organic resources especially for compost and digestate with the aim to facilitate the free cross-border movement of goods in the EU.
Pelleting of Sewage Sludge
Professor Dr.-Ing. Werner Sitzmann, Dipl.-Ing. Axel Buschhart
The untreated primary sludge produced in the sewage treatment plant with a dry matter content of about 4 – 5 % by mass is stabilized by means of different technical methods, dried to a DM content of 80 – 85 % and serves as raw material for further processing. Predominantly, municipal sewage sludge is pelleted, the composition of which is relatively homogeneous on account of its origin. Basically, industrial sewage sludge can also be pelleted, yet its structure and composition may vary a lot.
Developments in Combustion Control for Waste Incineration Plants
Dr.-Ing. Jens Sohnemann, Dr.-Ing. Walter Schäfers
Combustion control in waste incineration applications has been the subject of intensive discussion and numerous publications over the past two decades. This can be explained by the heterogeneous material stream to be burned which not only fluctuates in its composition, moisture content and inert fraction but also varies greatly from season to season and region to region. As these fluctuations in the waste quality are stochastically distributed they do not lend themselves to statistical prediction nor can they be adequately determined by measurements during process operation. In this respect, control of the waste combustion process for a constant heat output continues to pose a challenge.
Corrosion as a Result of Dew Points and Deliquescent Salts in the Boiler and the Flue Gas Treatment System
Dr. rer. nat. Thomas Herzog, Dr. Wolfgang Spiegel, Dipl.-Mineraloge Wolfgang MĂĽller
Boilers with difficult fuels such as waste, refuse derived fuels and biomass, may not only be hit by corrosion on the heat transfer surfaces of evaporators or superheaters, but also at the cold end, i.e. on ECO and heat transfer surfaces in the preheater area and even on the evaporator tubes or uncooled steel sheets located there. Corrosion may also occur during subsequent flue gas cleaning, on the raw gas and clean gas sides.
Economic Comparison of Landfilling with and without Anaerobic Pre-Treatment
Dr.-Ing. Ludwig Streff, Gerd Burkhardt
Up to the present most development banks (such as the World Bank or the German KfW) have sponsored in particular the fundamentals of waste management such as collection, transport and the orderly depositing of waste. The German Ministry of the Environment would like in future, however, to sponsor rather more advanced techniques for waste treatment, also in countries where this has hardly been considered before. Up to now the general opinion was that such higher quality waste treatment techniques (such as e.g. using biogas facilities, compost plants or waste incinerating plants) are still too expensive for most countries in the world. On closer inspection, however, it emerges that there are hardly any differences in the overall costs for waste disposal through cost reductions when landfilling and possible proceeds from various treatment systems. The consortium IGIP/L.e.e./ICP has now developed a calculation tool with which different waste management Scenarios can be compared relatively easily.
Production and Utilisation of Solid Recovered Fuels in Germany
Dr.-Ing. Stephanie Thiel
Solid recovered fuels (hereafter SRF) is the generic term for fuels recovered from waste, that are either incinerated in plants specifically built for this purpose or co-incinerated in plants built for other fuel types. In Germany, they are produced mainly in mechanical (-biological) waste treatment plants and sorting facilities for industrial and commercial waste.
Restoration Concepts for Landfill Sites
Dipl.-Ing. Stepanka Urban-Kiss
Nearly 40 % of municipal waste in the EU27 in 2010 was treated by landfilling. So far following up the topics on landfill technology continues being important.
Sewage Sludge as a Resource for Phosphorus
Dr.-Ing. Jutta Ansorg, Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Vollmeier
Sewage sludge is a suitable resource for phosphorus. Because of the presence of harmful substances, particularly heavy metals, the application to agricultural land is seen more and more critically and is already partially banned. The aim is therefore to treat sewage sludge in a way that harmful substances are eliminated and nutrients, particularly phosphorus, can be recovered. The recovered phosphorus has to be suitable as a potential fertiliser. It has to have a low concentration of heavy metals and a good accessibility for plants, which means, that phosphorus has to be present in its soluble form. At the moment there is no efficient recovery procedure on a large scale available, which offers a high recovery potential, an elimination of harmful substances and a product with a good uptake by plants.
Water-Related Problems with the Output of Digestate from Biogas Plants – data sheet DWA-M 907
Dr. Christine von Buttlar, Dr. sc. agr. Frank Eulenstein
The DWA-group GB 6.6 Effects and consequences of the cultivation and use of renewable raw materials (energy crops) on soil and groundwater has developed the data sheet DWA-M 907 Production of biomass for biogas plants under the consideration of soil and water conservation for the current debate on the promotion of renewable resources for heating and energy use. The rapid growth of biogas and cofermentation plants which took place in the last 10 years helps to achieve the climate goals of the European Union, contributes to energy supply diversification, particularly on a regional scale and represents an additional source of income in rural Areas.
Sewage Sludge Treatment – Experiences in International Contracts from Different Views –
Dipl.-Ing. Robert Werth
The recent years WTE Wassertechnik GmbH has realised interesting projects with its engineers, it has realised big projects, has been looking for technical challenges, has mastered these and year by year new superlatives followed. So, for example, the infrastructure project in Zagreb, the biggest at that time in Europe, different sewage plants with more than 2 million PE (Warsaw, Istanbul), the second largest sewage plant with membrane technology, the biggest primary settlement tank with selfrotary covers, the biggest pump performances, the biggest mud throughput, the biggest sludge treatment with thermal pressure hydrolysis and a lot of other projects were realised.
Fluidized Bed Incinerator in Tongliao (Inner Mongolia, China) – Industrial Sewage Sludge and Liquid Waste Incineration under Difficult Circumstances –
Fernando Stoffel, Dr. Thomas Zeilmann
Lonza Engineering Ltd. Basel, Switzerland (member of Lonza Group AG) and its wholly owned subsidiary Lonza Guangzhou Engineering & Consulting Co., Ltd., China provides customer oriented services with a professional and experienced engineering team. The company has more than 15 years of project management experience in China.
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