Waste Management, Volume 2

The second volume of the book series “Waste Management” mediates very compactly how projects of waste management are evolved and implemented. Important topics are waste management, recycling, composting, fermentation, mechanical-biological treatment, energy recovery from waste and sewage sludge treatment. This book is written in English. The publishers are Professor Dr.-Ing. habil. Dr. h. c. Karl J. ThomĂ©-Kozmiensky and Dipl.-Chem.-Ing. Luciano V. Pelloni. It was released on 12.09.2011.

Implementation of the European Industrial Emissions Directive
Prof. Dr. Andrea Versteyl
The Industrial Emissions Directive (Directive 2010/75/EU), abbreviated IED, is based on a 2007 proposal by the European Commission. In 2010 it was passed by the European Council and the European Parliament, published in the Official Journal 17 December 2010 and it became effective 7 January 2011. There is a two-year time interval for its transposition into national law ending 7 January 2013. The intentions were to review and to simplify existing regulations for industrial facilities and to combine them into one legal provision that is this new directive. Moreover, a better application of the reference documents on best available techniques (BAT) shall be achieved in regard to permit approvals for industrial facilities. The following gives an overview on how the directive’s aims are to be achieved and outlines its impact on the incineration and co-incineration of waste.
Liability of BREF/BAT-Documents for Waste Incineration
Dipl.-Ing. Markus Gleis
The Best Available Techniques Reference Documents (BREFs) are a main point for the technical activities on environmental protection in Europe and therefore it will be shown which effects on national transposition of the BREF documents will be caused by the Directive 2010/75/EU on industrial emissions (IED) of 24 November 2010. Main aspects of the process are the higher liability of the BAT documents, exchange of information on BAT in Europe as a continuous and dynamic process and the national transition and control of BAT conclusions.
The Polish National Waste Management Plan 2014
Dr. Beata B. Klopotek
The National Waste Management Plan 2014 (Official Journal Polish Monitor of 2010 No. 101, item 1183) is an update of the National Waste Management Plan 2010, taking into account requirements of directives, for example Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives (OJ L 312, 22.11.2008, p. 3), containing a waste prevention programme, and the recommendations contained in Report on the implementation of the National Waste Management Plan 2010 for the period from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2008.
Recent Municipal Waste Management Legislation in Poland
Dominik Walkowski
At a session on 1 July 2011 Parliament adopted a law introducing significant changes to the municipal waste management system prevailing in Poland. The most important modification, at times even referred to as a revolution rests on a mandatory assumption by local districts of property owner duties relating to municipal waste management. The intent of amendment authors is to significantly improve on the achievement of appropriate levels of recovery and recycling of municipal waste. The Minister of the Environment, Andrzej Kraszewski, declares that under this law Poland has an opportunity to resolve the problem of the mountain of waste under which Poland finds itself and to attain EU norms. The Minister also underscores that Poles expect us to create a law to deal with waste in the country, to provide local governments effective tools to organize an appropriate system and to guarantee entrepreneurs competitive conditions for activity.
International Treaty Standards in Waste Management
Dr. Stefan Eder
Public procurement in the waste sector represents a major economic activity for all governments. The public procurement framework in the CEE countries is based on Austrian/ German laws and regulations. This framework was further developed by the adoption of the acquis communautaire during the accession process to the EU. Total EU funds at the disposal of CEE countries equalled EUR 218 billion in 2008, the majority of which comprised resources for structural development projects. The current economic difficulties and fiscal restraints put the reform of the public procurement legal frameworks in some CEE countries back on the agenda. The European Commission announced in the Single Market Act (s. COM(2011) 206/4) that it will, on the basis of wide consultations, make legislative proposals by end 2011, for a revised and modernised public procurement legislative framework so as to make the award of contracts more flexible and enable public contracts to be put to better use in support of other policies. The consultation was opened by the publication of the Green Paper on 27 January 2011.
Investments in Poland – General Requirements and Funding
Dr. rer. oec. Christian Schnell
Waste-to-energy technologies has as in other Central and East European countries not enjoyed much interest or importance in Poland so far. In 2010, in Poland only one installation for thermal treatment of municipal waste was in operation. However, this situation is about to change, due to European standards regarding waste reduction and generation of energy from renewable sources, which Poland as a Member State of the EU has to fulfil.
The European Energy from Waste Market – Status and Perspectives
Dr. Jörg Zunft, M.A. Birgit Fröhlig
Environmental protection has become an important priority in the European Union. Almost all of the environmental sectors are covered by the European Community Policy and related Community legislation. This also applies to the waste sector. Again, the EU is affecting here the Member States increasingly more and has provided in recent years for decisive steps that have been taken towards the further development of European waste management and the implementation of new technologies and concepts.
The Polish Market for Municipal Waste Affords High Potentials
Dipl. Geol. Sandra Biering, Dipl.-Kfm. Dirk Briese, Dr. habil. Hilmar Westholm
Especially the guidelines of the EU landfill directive and of the waste framework directive increase the pressure on the Polish waste management to change the disposal structures. Experts already assume that Poland will not manage many of the short and medium term deadlines and has to expect to pay high fines partly, despite of exceptions and temporally delay by the EU. There is a strong need to catch up, and in the coming years substantial investments into the retrofit and new construction of treatment, recovery and disposal facilities have to be effected.
The Recycling Market in Poland
Dr. Grzegorz Hoppe
Poland is a country that only recently joined the EU and one that only for the last 20 years has benefited from the free market economy. After the changeover of the political system in 1989, the waste treatment sector of the economy was one of the most neglected ones. It only involved the collection of mixed communal waste and its delivery for storage. The last 20 years were marked with the rapid change in Polish economy, which had an impact on the development of the waste management sector as well.
Recycling and Waste Incineration – Not a Contradiction –
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Dr. h. c. Karl J. Thomé-Kozmiensky
Since the first Waste Avoidance and Management Act of 1986, in Germany waste management has been systematically transformed into a mediator between disposal and supply in the area of raw material and energy. This position is favoured by the compulsion for a safe – that is hygienic, environment- and climate-friendly – handling of waste, on the one hand and by the potential resources that waste contains on the other hand.
Resources and Energy Management Grow Together
Dr.-Ing. Michael Jakuttis
Waste was not always considered as a resource. In the past, waste disposal and waste management was much less organized and developed as today in Germany. At the end of the 19th century the conditions were critical especially in the urban region and hinterland, when waste was dumped directly in front of the house mostly. Thus, waste accumulated into piles of rubbish, resulting in a lack of hygiene. This caused diseases such as cholera. The spreading of such diseases and even epidemics in Germany caused a change in government’s and people’s awareness about the disposal of waste. In order to improve the hygienic standards and to protect the healthiness of the people, illegal waste dumping had to be avoided and a regulated waste management needed to be installed.
Demand for MBT Installations in Poland for the Year 2020
Professor Dr. hab. InĆŒ. Andrzej Jędrczak
In order to fulfil the requirements of the directive on the landfill of waste in Poland, after January 1st, 2013, the whole stream of waste from households and municipal infrastructure must be subjected to the mechanical-biological treatment or thermal treatment.
The Role of Thermal Treatment in Integrated Waste Management Concepts
Professor Dr.-Ing. Oktay Tabasaran
The management of waste, which plays an important role in environmental protection in the context of sustainable development of any market economy, has been subjected to significant changes in the European Union in recent decades. The overarching idea that economic activities must be based on more sustainable ecological principles is a growing consensus. Maintaining or improving living standards will not be achieved by a disadvantageous exploitation of nature, but through smarter production techniques. A smart technology is defined here as a technique that uses less material and less energy for the production of goods and which causes the least possible pollution emissions. Today, it is indisputable that the success of efforts to ensure a prosperous and sustainable society depends on the use of smart technologies in all economic processes.
The Role of Waste-to-Energy in Sustainable Waste Management
Ferdinand Kleppmann, Marta Gurin
For a successful technology, reality must take precedence over public relations, for Nature cannot be fooled (Richard P. Feynman). In a society with a history of rapid growth such as Europe, the environment and its protection is one of the central issues it has to address.
Overview of the Polish Waste-to-Energy Projects and their Perspectives
Prof. Ph. D., Eur. Ing. (Dr.-Ing. habil.) Tadeusz Pajak
The present paper is devoted to an overview of the Polish municipal waste management, which has stepped into its second decade of intensive work, aiming at its straightening and modernising. The main aim of the work is fulfilling community law obligations in the scope of waste management, focusing on the reduction of the amount of biodegradable waste. Regarding the challenges awaiting Poland in the scope of municipal waste management, the paper presents the current state of projects of constructing municipal waste-to-energy plants, design studies which have been conducted since 2007, and construction which is indispensable for achieving the defined goals.
Significance of Landfills in Modern Waste Management
Ass. Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Johann Fellner
Landfilling represents by far the oldest way of waste disposal. On a global scale even today the largest fraction of municipal solid waste is still landfilled. In the frame of the present paper the function of landfills in modern waste management is discussed, whereby special focus is given to the European waste hierarchy, which states that landfilling is the least desirable disposal option for waste. The results of the analysis conducted clearly shows that despite the requirements of the EU waste framework directive, landfills will still play an important role in future waste management. This is due to the main functions of landfills, which include the function as a safe sink for hazardous substances and the function as a temporary storage for potential secondary resources.
Road Map for the Implementation of Waste Management Plans
Dipl. Chem. Ing. Luciano Pelloni
The first steps for implementation of a waste management plan are of non-technical character. The most important questions to answer are depicted. The technical development of the project depends on the results of this initial phase. Mayor issues are the analysis of the treatment system with its processing units and economy of scale. For the realization, different possible procurement models are compared. These jobs have to be achieved by experts. They prevent from fatal mistakes.
Experiences of a General Contractor in Turnkey Plant Construction
Christophe CordÂŽHomme, Dipl.-Ing. Stefano Costa, Graduated Engineer (ENSTA) Hubert de Chefdebien
Energy from Waste management has some important characteristics to take into account. This activity is dealing with the public service of waste treatment generally under the responsibility of the public sector. It is based on a large scale infrastructure project which is very capital intensive and requires high skill competences for building and operation. Technically the know-how involved is very similar to the one required for a power plant but even more sophisticated because of the poor quality and the variable composition of the peculiar fuel, which is the waste.
The Global WTERT Council and its Role in Advancing WTE Technologies
Dr. Efstratios Kalogirou, Prof. Nickolas J. Themelis
This paper describes the mission and recent international activities of the Waste to Energy Research and Technology Council. In the last fifteen years, the Earth Engineering Center (EEC) of Columbia University in New York City has conducted scientific research on the generation and disposition of wastes in many countries and on all continents. These studies have shown that over one billion tons of municipal solid wastes (MSW) are landfilled each year, mostly in landfills that are not equipped to capture landfill gas (LFG) and prevent water contamination. Therefore, EEC has proposed the expanded Hierarchy of Waste Management that recommends recycling and composting from source-separated wastes and differentiates between traditional dumps and modern sanitary landfills. EEC research has also established that the only alternative to landfilling for post-recycling wastes is thermal treatment with simultaneously energy recovery, commonly called waste to energy (WTE).
The International WTERT Council and WtERT Germany – International Network on Waste to Energy (WtE) –
Dr.-Ing. Michael Jakuttis
The participation and acceptance of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) in modern waste management has increased considerably in some countries of the European Union. Previously seen as polluting facilities, WtE plants are now considered as one of the cleanest and safest ways for treating and recovering municipal solid waste (MSW). The perception and value of waste has also changed in the last 20 years. Formerly seen as a useless object, waste is now seen as a valuable resource. WtE technologies together with recycling are the backbone of modern waste economy and the only real solutions for treating waste in an environmentally friendly way.
Aspects of Layout Planning of Waste Incineration Plants and Solid Recovered Fuel Power Stations

The layout planning of waste incineration and solid recovered fuel power plants is subject to certain local and project-specific boundary conditions alongside the technical ones. The results of this planning have significant influence on the functionality and operation of the plant, as well as on other criteria.
Incineration Technology for Municipal and Industrial Waste Described by Way of Executed Projects
Dr.-Ing. Gert Riemenschneider, Dr.-Ing. Walter SchÀfers
The thermal treatment of waste in grate firing systems is a technology for which the experience of many decades is available. Therefore, it is well-developed and assures safely a high degree of availability. These plants can be designed for operational capacities ranging from a few tons up to a through-put of 40 Mg/h. Also the calorific value range which can be handled is wide. From low-calorific wet domestic waste to high-calorific plastics residues.
Advanced Thermal Treatment Technologies for Waste – Present State of the Art –
Frans Lamers, Dr. ir. Robert Van Kessel
An overview is presented on the present state of the art on advanced thermal treatment technologies for waste. Currently Governments and project developers are very interested in environmentally friendly alternatives for incineration (Mass Burn). An overview is created of the information that is necessary to compare the performance of different alternatives and subsequently status of several technologies is described. In the past numerous initiatives for advanced thermal treatment of waste have been tried and not come to commercial operation, due to high operational costs and low reliability. Currently several Advanced Thermal Treatment Technologies are in the construction phase and construction and operational experiences have to be anticipated.
Integrated Waste Treatment including Residue Utilization
Andreas Richter
Integrated waste treatment including residue utilization is not only a catchphrase, it shall be the maxim for further development in waste management for all kinds of waste types and local conditions and requirements. Modern WtE – Waste to Energy projects, shall be understood as innovative turn key solutions to convert waste products in recyclables which substitute the limited natural resources such as fossil energy sources and secures sustainable preservation of Mother Nature.
Better ROI and Lower Emissions – Smart Decisions Based on Energy Efficiency Facts Reduce the Emissions and Improve Your OPEX –
Dipl.-Elektroingenieur Albert Bossart
Today`s world has many obligations; the energy consumption in general must be reduced, the emissions as per Kyoto protocol should be reduced to the 2005 level and there should be a shift from coal fired and nuclear power plants into renewable energy sources. Also the management in industry starts to request energy savings to compensate the high energy costs. Now, as by the end of 2011, the new ISO 50,001 Energy Management System shall be implemented for systematically saving the precious energy while reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. The world needs will soon be fundamentally changed. This ambitious goal must be achieved in less than 20 years. Each one of us is asked every day to save energy and resources and it all depends and starts with each human being.
Innovative Concepts for Highly Efficient Energy-from-Waste Plants in the Netherlands
Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Ing. Gerhard Lohe, Kess Sinke
In 2008 AE&E Lentjes GmbH received the order for the turnkey supply of the incineration unit REC Harlingen (REC=ReststoffenEnergieCentrale). In this plant the high calorific portion of pre-treated municipal solid waste is thermally treated.
Heat Recovery in Waste to Energy Plants
M.Sc. Eng. Tomasz Dobrzycki, Dr. Eng. Jerzy Miroslaw, M.Sc. Eng. Witold Stogniew
Taking into consideration commitments of Poland regarding efficient municipal waste management resulting from the membership in the European Union, the market for offering Municipal Waste to Energy (WtE) plants is becoming more and more important currently in Poland. In connection with the above, in the following article we tried to present the current knowledge and experiences in the heat recovery sector, i.e. heat recovery boilers applied in WtE plants.
Waste Heat Recovery Using the Example of Slag Fuming
Dipl.-Ing. Stefan Köster
This article describes state of the art technologies for waste heat recovery systems or waste heat boilers respectively downstream pyro-metallurgical processes in the non-ferrous industry. The technologies are based on conducted plant applications. One objective is a modified Ausmelt furnace design as an integrated part of the waste heat boiler system. Different heating surface designs which are adapted to the process conditions are described as well. The hammering cleaning system for the fouling control of the heating surfaces and the adjustment of the cooling efficiency is introduced. The thermal expansion is another objective of this article. Furthermore possible improvements and developments for waste heat boiler systems in the non-ferrous industry are shown.
Technical level of Cladding – Latest Developments –
Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang Hoffmeister, Dipl.-Ing. Arne Manzke
High repair costs, outlay for flue gas cleaning systems and the stagnation of the waste availability are the challenges for economical operation of thermal recycling plants. Corrosion mechanisms in waste incinerators, biomass and alternative fuel plants are partly responsible for the high maintenance costs and require a series of measures in order to secure and increase the availability of the respective plants.
The Importance of Pollution Control for the Acceptance of Waste Treatment Facilities
Prof. (apl.) Dr. Uwe Lahl, Dr. Barbara Zeschmar-Lahl
In Germany, since the 1990s waste management experts as well as politicians have struggled extensively with the issue of incineration.
The SNCR-Procedure – A Proven Technology to Substancially Reduce NOx Emissions in Waste Incinerators –
Dipl.-Ing. Zoltan Teuber
The use of coal, oil products, natural gas as well as municipal and industrial waste to produce energy in combustion plants leads to formation of pollutants which are emitted with the flue gas.
Catalytic Denitrification – Energetically Optimised
Dipl.-Ing. Christian Fuchs
Depending on the manufacturer, various procedural approaches are possible in order to comply with Europe’s currently valid emissions limits for exhaust gases from household waste recycling systems according to EU directive 2000/76 and the respective countryspecific requirements.
Mechanical-Biological Waste Treatment – Process Concepts, Technology, Problems –
Dr.-Ing. Stephanie Thiel, Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Dr. h. c. Karl J. Thomé-Kozmiensky
The first mechanical-biological waste treatment plants (MBT) in Germany were aimed at producing a material suitable for landfilling. They were low level plants with rather simple technical standard. In response to changes in legislative and market requirements over the years, the objectives and the technology have developed considerably.
Experience in the Operation of Mechanical-Biological Waste Treatment Plants – Report by the Operator of a German MBT Plant (Hannover) –
Dr. Beate Vielhaber, Dipl. Ing, Roland Middendorf
The MBT plant in Hannover is approved for an annual capacity of 200,000 Mg. The mechanical waste treatment (MT) facility has been in operation since the year 2000, and the biological waste treatment (BT) facility installed downstream from it has been running since 2005. The BT facility is operated as a dry mesophilic fermentation unit based on the VALORGA system, with subsequent aeration and closed-system maturation.
Processing of Waste to Alternative Fuel
Dipl.-Ing. Michael Gursch
Waste management today means to minimise or even better prevent the production of waste in the community. At the same time dangerous substances in the waste must be eliminated, in order to exclude risks to humans and the environment. In the sector of waste management, several concepts for the recycling of waste materials are being pursued by policy and industry, the feedstock and energy recovery of which being mainly discussed.
Potential of Development of Mechanical-Biological Waste Treatment Plants in Germany
Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles, Dipl.-Ing. Michael Balhar, M.Sc. Jennifer GrĂŒnes, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Sabine Flamme
In Germany, there are currently existing 46 Mechanical-Biological waste Treatment plants (MBT-plants) operating with a total capacity of around 6 million tons. Most of the plants meanwhile possess about almost 6 years operating experience and have become an important part of Germany’s waste industry. But there is still a great range of possibilities to optimise the MBT-technology.
Solid Recovered Fuel Power Station EisenhĂŒttenstadt for the Energy Supply of a Paper Machine
Dr. Kai Redemann, Dipl.-Ing. Leo Homann
In principle the typical technologies known from the thermal treatment of municipal solid waste are applicable for the thermal utilization of residues from the paper industry. The most commonly used technologies are the grate firing systems and fluidized bed combustors. Grate systems are a well proven technology. Their advantages are their robust construction, ability to handle large fuel particles and contraries as well as a comparatively simple fuel feeding.
Pre-Processing, Handling and Co-Processing of Alternative Fuels in the Cement Industry
Dr. Hubert Baier, Dipl.-Ing. Karl Menzel
Due to the continuing energy cost fluctuations and the discussions on the sustainable protection of resources the German cement industry has hardly enabled to reduce its entire energy and power demand as a result of technical optimisation of its cement production.
Operational Experience in Composting Green Wastes - Using the Example of Lodz
Dipl.-Ing. Bogdan Cieslikowski, Malgorzata B. Tomaszewska
The municipal waste management in ƁódĆș is carried out according to the Waste Management Plan for the City of ƁódĆș for 2009-2011 and Its Outlook 2012-2020, specifying the main general and specific aims to be achieved in waste management.
Optimising Composting Systems Through the Upstream Installation of a Dry Fermentation Stage – Technology, Operation, Economics –
Dipl. Ing. Nils Oldhafer, Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Raussen, Dr.-Ing. Michael Kern
The integration of a fermentation system for power generation as well as for partial removal of organic substances in the existing organic waste compost facilities is currently being reviewed and implemented at several sites across Germany.
The Berlin Biogas-Project – The Production of Biomethane from Organic Waste –
Dr.-Ing. Alexander Gosten, Dipl. Ing. Thomas RĂŒcker
Communal waste removal services have to meet today‘s environmental and social demand for reduction of greenhouse gases and the need for sustainable resource management. In the process, the transparency, continuity and reliability of the necessary political economical, environmental and technical conditions for the further development of biogas production are obviously significant.
Synergistic Effects by Thermal and Biological Waste Treatment Facilities at Integrated Sites
Dipl.-Ing. Uwe Athmann, Dipl.-Ing.(TU) Werner P. Bauer, Dipl.-Umwelting. (FH) Thomas Kroner, Gerhard Meier, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Peter Quicker
the protagonists of conventional waste disposal have faced off against their opponents who wanted to recycle materials exclusively. In the mean time, there are many reasons to abandon these contrary positions and think about synergies between the concepts of thermal and material recycling processes. The latest impulse for this is surely the most recent legal development in the European Union in accordance with national objectives of having a waste management system that is more directed at the protection of the climate and resources.
Recovery of Recyclables from Municipal Solid Waste
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thomas Pretz, Dipl.-Ing. Michael Jansen
Municipal solid waste is a source for recycables also in times of comprehensive source separation with separate collecting systems. Plastic is one example for the household sourced recycables that can be recovered both from the selective collected and the mixed waste streams. The determination of the recycable potentials always is difficult.
Comminution – an Essential Component of Waste Treatment
Dipl.-Ing. Donat Bösch
About 20 % of the total quantity of municipal solid waste in Europe is shredded today. This figure is higher – about 40 % – for countries with a high developed waste recovery and recycling system and lower for countries with a developing waste industry.
Processing of Heterogeneous Waste Streams by NIR Sorting – Reflections on the Material-Specific Recovery based on selected M(B)T-Waste Streams –
DI Dr. Arne Michael Ragossnig, Dipl.-Ing. Manuel Sommer, Dipl.-Ing. Mag. Simone Pieber, B.Sc. Martina Meirhofer
The material recycling as well as the energetic utilization of waste are preferred options in waste management in Europe and Austria in particular. Recovery options are not only to be found based on the current legal framework but are also preferable options compared to pure disposal due to economic reasons. In general, optimized material specific waste routing not only allows for maximizing recovery but also minimizing the over-all costs for the management of a specific waste stream.
Innovations in Sorting Processes for Mixed Household Waste Regarding the Objectives of the National Waste Management Plan Poland 2014
M. Sc. Mariusz Rajca
The following years will bring the most intense changes in the field of municipal waste management in Poland. This is mainly due to the requirements posed by EU directives which have already been implemented in the Polish law, but also to an act which will become effective on 1 January 2012 under which gminy (municipalities) will have to assume the obligations of estate holders within the scope of municipal waste management. All these changes are supposed to lead to the creation of a system which will guarantee considerable limitation of the amount of landfilled municipal waste.
Material Recycling of Mixed Commercial Waste in Austria
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. mont. Gernot Kreindl
Rising greenhouse gas emissions, the careless handling of finite energy and raw material resources and the lavish use of limited landfill space require a rethinking, not only on the production and consumption sector, but also in terms of waste management.
Recovery of Metals from Combustion Residues
Dr.-Ing. Ralf Koralewska
Thermal waste treatment using grate-based systems has gained world-wide acceptance as the preferred method for the sustainable treatment of waste. Key factors are not only the reduction of waste volume and mass and the destruction or separation of pollutants but also the efficient production and use of energy (electricity, district heating, process steam), compliant disposal and optimization of the quality of the combustion residues.
Sewage Sludge Disposal in Switzerland
Dr. Hans-Peter Fahrni
Phosphorus is an important element for the fertility of soils. The actual practise in waste elimination causes important losses of phosphorus coming from the incineration of sewage sludge and then burning of bone and meat meal in plants, which do not allow recovering the phosphorus.
Regional Disposal of Sewage Sludge Using the Example of the Canton of Zurich – Thermal Sewage Treatment Plant Zurich-Werdhoelzli –
Michael Wehrli
In the Canton of Zurich, approximately 100,000 tonnes of drained sewage sludge from 104 sewage treatment plants are currently burned in 9 waste management facilities. The methods used include co-incineration in waste incineration plants, dedicated incineration and drying with subsequent incineration in a cement works.
Sewage Sludge Treatment in Large Cities Using the Example of Berlin
Dipl.-Ing. Ulrike Franzke
The mechanical sewage sludge drainage is a minimum treatment level for sludge treatment in large cities, as the sludge can generally not, or not entirely, be transferred to agricultural recycling due to the high pollution and the large quantity. Further treatment of the sewage sludge in the form of drying and/or incineration must be examined in the individual case, with regard to efficiency and disposal safety.
Sewage Sludge Treatment in Warsaw – Current Situation in Poland –
M/S eng. Aleksandra Cyganecka, eng. Ireneusz Majszczyk
Municipal wastewater sludge, before any management is stabilized in course of biological treatment (an aerobic or anaerobic stabilization) or by chemical methods in wastewater treatment plant. After stabilization, wastewater sludge is dewatered and passed to specialized companies for further management. In recent years, an extension of sludge treatment process with drying and incineration becomes more and more popular.
Future Concepts of Sewage Sludge Management
Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Vollmeier, Umwelt Ing. Paolo Foa
The use of sewage sludge in agriculture is being questioned, in particular because of the inorganic and organic pollutants, including traces of drugs and hormones. Therefore, restrictions are gradually being introduced in European countries, with a trend towards mineralization of sludge and hence solutions envisaging thermal treatments.
Sewage Sludge Dewatering and Drying
Dr.-Ing. Christian Schaum, Dipl.-Ing. Josef Lux
The objective of sewage sludge treatment is to prepare the sludge in a way that there are no negative impacts resulting from its disposal. Thereby, processes showing optimal cost efficiency are favored. Future sewage sludge treatment requires new approaches towards sludge dewatering and drying.
Sequenced Bioleaching and Bioaccumulation of Phosphorus from Sludge Combustion – A New Way of Resource Reclaiming –
Professor Dr. rer. nat. Wolfgang Dott, Dr. Maxime Dossin, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Petra Schacht
Reutilization of heavy metal contaminated solids, incineration ash in particular, is being increasingly problematic, since the use of ash in agriculture or construction industry is often not possible, due to its potential toxicity. Methods of bioleaching, known from ore extraction, may be used as an alternative remediation concept for heavy metal depletion in contaminated solids.
Phosphorus Recovery from Sewage Sludge
Prof. Dr. Mario Mocker, Dipl.-Ing. Ingrid Löh, Dipl.-Wi.-Ing. Fabian Stenzel
Phosphorus is an essential element, necessary for the sustaining of life and therefore irreplaceable and non-substitutable. It’s economically viable reserves in the earth’s crust are running out, which is why science has been searching for years for methods to recover phosphorus from anthropogenic sources. Besides manure, which is in use already, the greatest potential is seen in the field of wastewater treatment. In the recent years, several promising methods of P recovery from the material flows of wastewater treatment have been developed.
Thermal Production of Fertilizer from Organic Waste

Phosphorus compounds are essential for humans, animals and plants. Phosphorus is becoming scarcer and is neither a renewable nor a replaceable resource. The natural resources are scarce. In connection to resources the current phosphorus management in Switzerland is today not optimally designed.
Mono-Incineration of Sewage Sludge – Options for Cost-Effective Sludge Utilization with Andritz Ecodry Technology –
Dipl.-Ing. Klaus Trattner, Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Manfred Winter
Using a low-temperature belt dryer in combination incineration of digested sludge in the cyclone furnace opens up new possibilities for energetic sewage sludge utilization with highest yields, placing the goal of energy self-sufficient sewage treatment plants within reach
Co-Combustion of Sewage Sludge in Grate-Based Combustion Plants
Dipl.-Phys. Ph.D. Edmund Fleck
Various feeding systems are available for co-combusting municipal sewage sludge in thermal waste-to-energy plants using grate-based systems. Dried sewage sludge can be fed directly into the refuse pit. Mechanically dewatered sewage sludge is intermediately stored in silos and then conveyed by means of solids pumps to the specific feeding system in the waste chute of the grate-based combustion system or furnace.
Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge – Pyrobustor
Dipl.-Ing. RĂ©ka Tittesz, Dr.-Ing. Uwe Neumann
Sewage sludge is a side product of municipal and industrial waste water treatment plants, which although being rich in nutrients is difficult to be disposed of due to its content of pollutants.


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