DepoTech 2006: Abstracts in English


Waste Management in Germany – Can the ambitious goals set for 2020 be reached?
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Dr. h. c. Karl J. Thomé-Kozmiensky
At the beginning of the new millennium the former “red-green” coalition government in Germany elaborated and propagated a master plan for the future management of household wastes in Germany.
From EU waste management to the Austrian Waste Prevention Strategy
Hubert Reisinger, Dipl.-Ing. Hans Jörg Krammer
In order to reduce the amount of waste to be landfilled, the European Union issued a Landfill Directive in 1999.
Waste Management Inspections – essential or unacceptable?
Hofrat Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Wilhelm Himmel, Dipl.-Ing. Josef Mitterwallner
According to the Austrian Landfill Ordinance of 2004, pre-treatment of specific kinds of waste is mandatory to achieve the high quality standards for landfilled residues.
Biological Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in Hefei, Anhui Province, PR China
Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles, M. Knöpfle, Prof Ke Wu
The PR China with its population of 1,3 billion Inhabitants accounts for approximately 20 % of the world population and is among the countries with the fastest growing economies.
Waste management in North Rhine-Westphalia since June 1st 2005
Gudrun Both
Since June 1st 2005 untreated waste may not be landfilled any longer in Germany.
Alternatives for the improvement of the MSW management in Zavidovici (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
C. Collivignarelli, M. Vaccari
The development of correct strategies in municipal solid waste (MSW) management should start from an in-depth analysis of the political, social, economic and environmental context, and consider specific interests, roles and responsibilities of local actors, as households, communitybased organisations and other service users, local and national government authorities, nongovernmental organisations, formal and informal private sector enterprises, external support agencies.
Hazardous waste management in Chile: novel challenges for a new regulation
Dr. Rodrigo Navia, P. González, E. Lagos
The new "Hazardous Waste Management Regulation" was published in the Official Newspaper of the Chilean Republic on June 12th, 2003, being in force 365 days after its publication (i.e., June 12th, 2004).
The Development of Waste Management as a Phase Model
Mag. Dr. Hannes Klampfl-Pernold, Prof. Ulrike Gelbmann, Ing. Mag. Gerald Schmidt
In 2005 a collaboration was formed between Saubermacher DienstleistungsAG, ecorec Eastern Europe, and the Institute of Innovations- and Environmental Management of the Karl-Franzens- University of Graz, which created the basis for this paper.
Promotion of Closed Loop Recycling – Categorisation of Closed Loop Systems
Dipl.-Ing. Ruth M. Morgan, Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Arnd I. Urban
“Closed loop recycling” is the declared objective of environmental policy in Germany.
Circular Economy – The Chinese Way of Kreislaufwirtschaft
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Dr. h.c. Bernd Bilitewski
The Task Force sponsored by the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and the Chinese Government on “China’s Strategies for Promoting Circular Economy: Priorities and Policy System” delivered the report to the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development (CCJCED) and to the Prime minister of China on the 25th of October, 2005.
Contribution of Waste Management to the Metabolism of Goods and Substance of Austria
Mag. Hans Daxbeck, Dipl.-Ing. Bernd Brandt, E. Kampel
The waste management goals „optimal resource utilisation“ and „protection of humans and environment“ are also economical and socio-political goals.
Material flow analysis of combined mechanical waste treatment plants
Hannes Menapace, Mag. Dr. Wolfgang Staber, Dipl.-Ing. Dr. mont. Michael Prochaska, Em.o.Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Karl E. Lorber, Alexander Curtis
The Austrian waste management has rapidly developed from a landfill oriented waste management to a material flow economy based on treatment and utilization plants to a sorting disposal economy.
STAN – Free Software for Substance Flow Analysis
Dipl.-Ing. Oliver Cencic, Professor Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Helmut Rechberger
Over the past 20 years Material Flow Analysis (MFA) has become a reliable instrument to describe material flows and stocks within a system.
New Strategies for waste management – situation and evaluation
o. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Kranert, Dipl.-Ing. Gerold Hafner, Nicol√°s Escalante Mora
In Germany various waste management systems have been established during the last two decades.
The Occupants as Experts – Waste Separation at Large Apartment Buildings
Dr. Siegfried Kreibe, C. Schicker, Dr. Dieter Tronecker, Dipl.-Ing. Martin Schneider
A significant amount of recyclable material is still lost through residual waste.
Climate Effects of the Vienna Waste Management Policy
Christian Rolland, Mohammad Seidi, Prof. Dr. techn. habil. Dr.-Ing. E. h. Albert E. Hackl
In the Kyoto Protocol the EU has committed itself to an 8 % reduction target on greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by 2010. Austria has agreed to a greenhouse gas emissions reduction of 13 % under the Kyoto burden sharing agreement.
Waste Management Indicators – State and Perspectives
Dipl.-Ing. Heike Bär, Prof. Dr. rer. silv. Gabriele Weber-Blaschke, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Faulstich
Waste management of the future is characterized by minimized waste arisings and hazardousness of waste, resource use is highly efficient, recycling is maximized and climate relevant emissions are reduced as far as possible.
Selecting Recycling Strategies by Input-Output-Analysis
Dr.-Ing. Margit Löschau, Dr.-Ing. Perrine Chancerel, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Vera Susanne Rotter
As a result of increasing scarcity of resources and anthropogenic environmental impact recycling strategies gain importance in waste management.
Computer-based municipal solid waste forecasting
Dipl.-Ing. Mag. Peter Beigl
Capacity planning of waste processing facilities and infrastructure requires an idea of the future demand, little is known about how to estimate the quantity of future municipal solid waste (MSW) streams.
The Austrian Way to Implement the WEEE-Directive – First Results
G. Dostal
Austria has already gained experience in producer responsibility systems.
The VDI 2343 guideline gives recommendations for the concerned parties
Dr.-Ing. Ralf Br√ľning
In Germany on 24th March 2006 the most relevant regulations of the German Act on Electrical and Electronic Equipment (ElektroG) came into force.
Analysis of key figures for recycling of small waste electronic equipment
The European “Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment [WEEE]” provides that WEEE should be collected separately in all member states.
Old visual display units: Chronological variation of quantities and composition
Wolfgang Walk, Dr. Ulf Richers
The adoption of the European directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in January 2003 caused an increasing discussion about these devices, because the frame conditions of electronic scrap disposal were consistently regulated for Europe by this directive.
Recycling of mixed polymers from WEEE processing
F. Prior, W. Spruzina, Dr. Martin Schlummer, Dr. Andreas Mäurer
There is an increasing interest in the end-of-life management of polymers present in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), which is mainly due to the high recycling and recovery targets set by the European WEEE directive.
Sorting of Plastics by Near-Infrared-Detection
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Burkhard Berninger, J. Rupprecht
With the German “ElektroG“ (a law concerning the handling and recycling of electronic refuse) coming into force in Germany on March 16, 2005, quotas are set for recycling of old electronic equipment.
Plastic Recycling without separate Collection?
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thomas Pretz
Innovative methods within the field of waste processing technologies, especially the development of sensor based sorting systems, caused a discussion, whether the separate collection of Light Packaging Waste can be given up.
State of the art in sensor based sorting of waste
Dipl.-Ing. Dirk Killmann, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thomas Pretz
Waste is a heterogeneous mixture of particles containing reusable or recyclable materials.
New Aftercare Conception for landfills: SFBC flare burning weak landfill gas
Professor Dr.-Ing. habil. Dieter Steinbrecht, V. Spiegelberg
In DepoTech 2004 a gas flare based on a fluidised bubbling bed combustion (SFBC) plant had been introduced. This SFBC is operated automatically and remote controlled and is able to burn very poor landfill gases characterized by methane concentrations down to 5-8 vol.-%.
Anaerobic digestion of organic wastes – clean, safe and environmentally friendly?
J. Wimmer
The operation of some biogas plants in the Province of Upper Austria led to massive odor nuisance during the years 2004 and 2005.
Increasing the efficiency of AD plants by optimized mixing
Dr.-Ing. Rainer Scholz, R. Berger, Prof. Dr. Stephan Prechtl, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Faulstich
The energetic utilization of organic waste and renewable raw materials in anaerobic digestion plants (AD plants) as a climate neutral biogas has increased considerably within the last few years.
Strategies for optimization of microbiological processes for biogas cleaning
Kathrin M√ľller, Prof. Dr. Stephan Prechtl, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Faulstich
The quality of biogas is influenced by the amount of methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and trace contaminations (like halogen chemical compounds, siloxane).
Biogas Vienna: Energetic utilization of organic waste by wet anaerobic digestion
Dr.-Ing. Dieter Korz
Organic waste from municipal and industrial sources like source separated biowaste, food and kitchen waste, packaged food waste, residues from the food and beverage processing industry is a valuable energy source which can be used by a wet anaerobic digestion technology to produce biogas.
ATZ-TPH-process for optimized usage of organic waste
Prof. Dr. Stephan Prechtl, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Faulstich
The treatment of organic waste by biological processes like composting and digesting only leads to a mass diminution from about 50 %.
Guideline for waste fuels
DI Hubert Grech
Due to the implementation of the Austrian landfill ordinance – since the 1st of January 2004 only pretreated waste can be landfilled – the amount of waste fuels has strongly increased.
Phragmites Australis as Alternative Fuel for Clinker Production
DI Dr. Arne Michael Ragossnig, O. Brandweiner, B. Kren
Due to tough competition the cement industry in Middle Europe was looking and is still looking for options to utilize alternative fuels.
Mechanical-biological treatment of waste: current developments
Dipl.-Ing. Christian Neubauer, Andreas √Ėhlinger
The current development in the field of the mechanical-biological treatment of municipal and industrial wastes in Austria is a clear indication of the rising importance of this form of waste treatment.
The use of waste materials in the Austrian cement industry
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Gerd Mauschitz, Dipl.-Ing. Andreas Hackl
A high firing temperature of about 2,000°C, a flue gas temperature of more than 1,000°C combined with a residence time of 5 to 7 sec., an extensive sintering of all raw materials flowing through the rotary kiln and a neutralization of acidic flue gas components by intensive contact with the basic raw meal are the most important reasons for the destruction and for the permanent sealing of pollutants in the cement clinker.
Thermal Treatment of Waste Fuels in Fluidised Bed Boilers
Dipl.-Ing. Kurt Kaufmann, Dipl.-Ing. Elmar Offenbacher
In most countries, the regulations for landfill are getting stricter and stricter these days and as a consequence treatment of municipal and industrial waste materials will become more important.
Reliable measurement of chlorine in RDF by means of a pilot combustion plant
Dipl.-Ing. Ramona Schröer, Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Arnd I. Urban
Low pollutant content is important for the quality of a fuel, especially in the case of refuse derived fuels, and chlorine is a particularly relevant parameter in the thermic reaction.
Stochastic simulation of residual household waste properties
Dr. Harald Weigand,
Physico-chemical properties of residual waste are key factors for disposal standards.
Balance Method – A Cost Effective Method to Determine Fossil CO2 Emissions
Ass. Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. techn. Johann Fellner, Dipl.-Ing. Oliver Cencic, Professor Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Helmut Rechberger
New directives of the European Union will require operators of waste-to-energy (WTE) plants to report the amount of CO2 that is generated through the combustion of fossil materials.
14C-method – determination of biomass in waste
Norbert Kienzl, Mag. Dr. Wolfgang Staber, Georg Raber
For the determination of the biomass content in solid recovered fuels (SRF) already wellestablished methods of analysis exist: by manual sorting and by selective dissolution (SDM).
Waste Treatment Technologies in Japan, including Ash-Melting
Prof. Dr. Ir. Alfons Buekens
Japan has limited land available for waste disposal, yet yearly generates over 50 M tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). In the nineties most waste was burned in over 2,000 (!) incinerator facilities.
Incineration experiments and their impact on transfer coefficients
A. Kirchner, Dr. Dipl. Ing. ETH Leo S. Morf
The identical method to routinely monitor the substance flows and waste composition in a waste incineration plant has been applied at the municipal waste incineration plant (MSWIP) Spittelau, Vienna, and three incinerators in Switzerland (Limmattal, St. Gallen and Weinfelden).
PYROMEX Waste-To-Energy – The Ultimate Solution
P. Jeney
In a 12 year’s R&D program, PYROMEX has developed the ultimate solution to treat waste without waste residues and without harmful emissions to the environment and at the same time recover all valuable constituents of the waste at highest economic conditions.
LCA of Thermal Waste Management Options in Northrhine- Westfalia
Dipl.-Biol. Horst Fehrenbach, Gudrun Both
In Germany landfilling of combustible waste is banned since June 2005.
Recycling of contaminated dewatered sludge from the Gotthard Base Tunnel
A. Hitz, D. Marti, T. Reinecke, W. Schneebeli
During the construction of the 57 kilometers long new transalpine rail route - the Gotthard Base Tunnel - in Switzerland, large quantities of mud-like materials resulted.
Recycling of contaminated tin scrap and tin containing waste materials
C. Wenzl, Prof.Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Helmut Antrekowitsch, Dipl.-Ing. Dr. J√ľrgen Antrekowitsch, D. Offenthaler
Although the annual production of tin is quite low and just amounts to about 330,000 tons the fields of application for tin are strongly diversified.
Reduction of nitrogen oxides with a flue gas desulphurization residue
O.Univ.Prof., Dipl.-Ing., Dr.techn. Werner Kepplinger, Dipl.-Ing. Bernd Hollauf, M. Ernecker
In flue gas desulphurization processes which use ammonia as sorbent, the by-product typically consists of ammonia-sulphur compounds and ideally can be used as a fertilizer.
PhosKraft Multinutrient Fertilizer Based on Sewage Sludge Ash
Ludwig Hermann, G. Prinzhorn, Professor Dr. Mikhail Boutoussov
For every living organism phosphorus is vital and not replaceable.
Landfills enclosed by cut-of walls & the 1999 Council Directive
Dipl.-Ing. Holger Bach, S. Semprich, Em.o.Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Karl E. Lorber
The “Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste“ lists consistent requirements for new built landfill sites for all EU member states.
Application of recycling materials in surface sealings
Dr. Birte M. Pfeiffer, Prof. Dr. habil. Stefan A. Gäth
The capillary barrier system is an alternative surface sealing, which has obtained a high acceptance during the previous decade.
Risk-based performance assessment of Geosynthetic Clay Liners
I. Szabó, A. Szabó, A. Tóth, T. Madarász
Both mineral barriers (natural clay liners) and synthetic materials (geomembranes) are widely used in the environmental applications to avoid spreading of contaminants or to isolate contaminated land from its environment. Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCL-s) gain greater share against traditional compacted clay liner systems in environmental applications due to some of their favorable installation and technical features or simply because of the lack of appropriate clay mines near the site.
Gaseous Emissions at Landfill Sites with technical Barrier and Methane Oxidation Cover
A. Amann, A. Budischowsky
The department of air pollution control of the NUA Umweltanalytik GmbH has been conducting studies of gaseous emissions at the surface of municipial solid waste landfills.
Construction and Efficiency of Biocovers to enhance Methane Oxidation
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Marion Huber-Humer, O.Univ.Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Peter Lechner
Because of the high methane content and its high global warming potential, landfill gas emissions are of paramount importance at a global scale for contributing to the manmade greenhouse effect. Landfills are among the largest anthropogenic sources of methane in many developed countries.
Chances of CO2-Projects for European Landfill
A. Simader, C. Praher
The protection of climate is one of the fundamental issues of European Waste Management.
Model Development Coupled with Experiments – Estimation of Landfill Emission Life Span
Dr.-Ing. Veronika Ustohalova, Jun.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Tim Ricken, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Renatus Widmann
Long term landfill management strategy planning requires taking into account a wide range of factors affecting the process of waste degradation – the conditions inside the waste body and external effects (climatological and hydrological settings).
Rating landfills in terms of sustainable development – design of a pilot study
Dr. Daniel J. Lang, Prof. Dr. Roland W. Scholz, K. Hächler
Although municipal solid waste landfills are often seen as least preferable waste management tools with respect to sustainable development (SD), they will eventually further on play a crucial role as final sinks of our anthropogenic metabolism.
Reduction of Landfill Aftercare by means of Low Pressure Aeration
Dr.-Ing. Marco Ritzkowski, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Rainer Stegmann
In Germany, many landfills were closed in May 2005 to meet the requirements of German legislation.
Securing the contaminated site W21 “Teerag-Asdag Simmering”
A. Winkler, M. Richter
The contaminated site W21 is located in Vienna’s 11th Borough.
“Austrian Cut-off Walls” – an Efficient Technique to Secure Waste Deposits Economically
O. Henögl, G. Reiser
In the last two decades, the thin-slurry-wall-technology could be successfully improved, developing into the so called Austrian Cut-off Wall-technology.
Remediation and Excavation of the Hazardous Waste Landfill Site of Kölliken/Switzerland
Raeto .M. Conrad
Between 1978 and 1985 about 375,000 m3 of hazardous waste was deposited in a disused clay quarry in Kölliken (Switzerland).
Risk Assessment of old Deposits – Practical Experiences
Dipl.-Ing. Gerhard Allgaier, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Rainer Stegmann
Former waste disposal sites (FWS) are a widespread problem. Unknown risk potentials and the lack of documentation leads to restrictions in the regional planning.
A procedure for identifying contaminated sites in developing countries
Dr. Alberto Bezama, Em.o.Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Karl E. Lorber, F. Márquez
Contaminated sites negatively impact their surroundings, and therefore their clean-up management brings a reduction of the community health risks.
The influence of ecological burdens on property value and use
Dipl.-Ing. Werner Erhart-Schippek
By environmental protection regulations getting stricter, ecological burdens always get more to worth defining factors at the property assessment.
Qualitative vs. quantitative risk evaluation in contaminated sites management
Nora Szarka, J. Wolfbauer, Dr. Alberto Bezama
Decision analysis for contaminated sites management is generally carried out through a traditional engineering/economic point of view. However, new advances in risk assessment (e.g. probabilistic risk assessment), and the growing recognition and awareness of the importance of ’soft’, non-statistical, informal data in the decision-making process, require decision analysis methodologies that are capable of accommodating non-technical and politically biased qualitative information.
Operational Experience of the site adapted AR&B System Brunn a. G., Austria
P. Niederbacher, M. Gregori
Brownfield development in urban areas, requires innovative environmental remediation and protection solutions to allow the reuse of contaminated sites.
Chelates enhanced electrokinetic remediation by conditioning catholyte pH
A. Giannis, Prof. Dr. Evangelos Gidarakos
Heavy metal contamination of soils is still an unsolved problem although metals are associated with human life and have been widely used for thousands of years.
Chemical Oxidants for the Remediation of Organic Soil Pollutants
Gerhard Soja, M. Zivkovic
The investigation of the possibilities to deploy chemical oxidation methods usually requires a three-step procedure.
Soilremediation by “Enhanced Vapour Extraction”
R. Staben, G. Heger, H. Herglotz
On the site of a chemical industry company, a considerable pollution was detected in 1981.
In-Situ-Hydraulic Soil Washing of a Diesel/HEL-Damage on a Tank Farm Site
Dipl.-Kffr. Annerose Fritsch, D. Mayer, H. Wallner
The tank farm is situated in the industrial area at the Linz Harbour. Due to its use, a widely ranging soil - and groundwater contamination with diesel and heating oil “extra light” (HEL) happened prior to construction of the downstream hydroelectric powerplant in 1979.
In-Situ Bioremediation in the saturated zone – state-of-the-art
Robert Philipp
The project INTERLAND was carried out from 2002 to 2005. It has been the largest research project on contaminated land in Austria so far.
Enhanced Natural Attenuation by iSOC®
Dipl.-Ing. J√ľrgen Buhl
In groundwater remediation the use of innovative technologies or the stimulation of natural processes are becoming more and more popular.
Remediation of Leachate Contaminated Groundwater in Unconfined Aquifer by MSL System
S. Karnchanawong, P. Prometjit
The Mae-Hia disposal site that covers 12 ha, was used as a waste dump for Chiang Mai municipal wastes during 1958 until 1989.
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