Orbit 2012


Preliminary assessment of food waste generation in households in Greece
Dr. Konstadinos Abeliotis, Dr. Katia Lasaridi, Christina Chroni
According to Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC), waste prevention are the measures taken before a substance, material or product has become waste, that reduce the quantity of waste, the adverse impacts of the generated waste on environmental and human health or the content of harmful substances. Food waste is among the priority topics for waste prevention initiatives. Food waste occurs in nearly every household throughout the year. The amount of edibles discarded depends on several factors with varying significance for each household. For instance, socio-demographic backgrounds as well as consumption patterns or cooking habits are likely to influence the magnitude of food discarded. Food waste reduction is known to have a very large tonnage diversion potential, as it is the largest single waste stream in the municipal solid waste, while wasted food accounts for significant greenhouse gas emissions and consumer expenditure. Further authors: Athanassia Papakosta Department of Home Economics and Ecology, Harokopio University, Greece
Optimization of organic waste home composting
S. Barrington
Within cities around the world, home composting can reduce the cost of disposing food waste (FW) and yard trimmings (YT). Besides reducing equipment and labour costs, home composting of organic waste eliminates its selective collection and mechanical processing, and reduces the fossil fuel required for these tasks as well as their resulting greenhouse gases. Nevertheless, the successful implementation of onsite composting depends on the active participation of households and the production of a safe soil amendment. Further authors: B. Adhikari, IRSTEA, UR GERE, France; A. Trémier, IRSTEA, UR GERE, France
LCA of a collective biogas plant to manage manure in a French intensive farming and agroindustry area
Dr. Lynda Aissani
This work has been carried out to evaluate the environmental impact through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a collective biogas plant incorporating pig slurry, cattle manure and waste from food processing industry. This collective biogas plant is actually a project located in an intensive farming and agro-industry area close to Rennes (France). Water from surface resources (river) located within this area is used to supply the towns located around for tap water. However, the excess of nitrogen locally applied on agricultural soils led to an increase of nitrate concentration in the water of the area and consequently, the water plant was recently closed. A collective manure management including biogas plant and post-treatment of digestate is seen as a possible solution to reduce the local pollution (mainly nitrate) through export of nitrogen. In this context, the aim of this study was to provide scientific elements on such solutions and to take into account the global environmental impact. So, a LCA has been realised to compare different scenarios of manure management according to an environmental point of view. Further authors: A. Collet; F. Beline, Irstea
End-of-waste criteria for compost: A safeguard for quality?
A.M. Andries, M. de Schoenmakere
With the revision of the Waste Framework Directive (WFD), the re-use and sustainable management of materials and resources, has now been introduced at EU level, by the instrument of "end of waste criteria " (EoW criteria). The Joint Research Centre of the EU Commission is working on the final draft of the technical document for the development of EoW criteria for biodegradable waste subject to biological treatment.
Compost pelletization increases the phytoavailability of phosphorus in compost
Yusuke Arakawa
Compost pellets, known as convenient soil amendments, have recently been attracting attention as the most readily abundant alternative source of soil nutrients, with the rising prices of chemical fertilizer as a backdrop.
Use of headspace and substrate composition to steer fermentation processes
Doga Arslan, Dr. Bert Hamelers, Ludo Diels
Currently, industrial chemicals such as acids and solvents are produced via fossil fuel resources. However, because of increasing environmental concerns, the new trend is towards bio-based production of these chemicals. Fermentation, which is an intermediate step in the anaerobic digestion process, can generate acids and alcohols. In other words, fermentation processes can be used for the production of bulk chemicals from organic biomass sources. Among the variety of biomass sources, organic wastes are the most interesting ones because they are abundantly available, cheap and they do not compete with food. Further authors: K.J.J. Steinbusch, Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, The Netherlands; H. De Wever, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO); C.J.N Buisman, Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, The Netherlands
Effect of lignocellulosic waste dry grinding on methanization and microbial populations
Nelly Badalato
Municipal solid waste (MSW) methanization is promising as it enables mass reduction of waste and methane recovery. Methanization has been implemented at the industrial level for decades, in particular on liquid effluents. However, solid waste substrates raise specific issues; process and performance optimization is still required. In the present work, we focus on the MSW lignocellulosic fraction, representing in France ~50% of the MSW mass (papers, cardboards, sanitary textiles, green waste). It is a renewable and high energy potential fraction. It is however recalcitrant to degradation due to its insolubility and a highly complex and heterogeneous structure. Current MSW methanization processes probably do not yet fully exploit this energy potential. Further authors: X. Rouau - INRA, France; L. Mazéas, T. Bouchez, A. Bize - Irstea, France
Monitoring biodegradability of lignocellulosic biomass during anaerobic digestion
Patricia C. Benito
Energy crops and crop residues can be digested anaerobically either alone or as co-substrate to produce biogas, a versatile renewable energy source. In the agricultural sector, this biomass is often co-digested with animal manure and slurry, one of the most significant agricultural waste streams. In spite of the growing number of agricultural biogas plants using agricultural waste and energy crops, the use of process simulation models for predicting and defining plant behaviour is still very limited, mainly due to the complexity of the process and the heterogeneity of the substrates. Also, the lack of standardized substrate characterisation methodology contributes to this issue. Further authors: N. N. Sibisi-Beierlein, M. Greger - University of Luxembourg
Experiences with the substrate processing and biogas production from packaged food on such an industrial scale plant in England
Dr.-Ing. Dieter Korz
Huge amounts of industrial organic waste that for example arise from food processing, as expired products in supermarkets or as food leftovers in restaurants have to be disposed in an environmental friendly way. Because of the high amount of biodegradable organic components and the high humidity of this type of organic waste anaerobic digestion with biogas production is the most suitable technology to process such type of organic waste. Beside the production of renewable energy the organic waste is also a very suitable feedstock to produce a valuable fertilizer.
Management of organic resources waste in France: regulations and compostable bags
Christophe Doukhi-de Boissoudy
The purpose of this paper is to make a close examination of the various regulations established in France in order to manage the organic waste in a sustainable and efficient way.
Compost & biogas market in France: current state & trends for organic waste management (sewage sludge, MSW, agroindustrial residues & farm residues...)
Emmanuel Adler, Nicolas Fruteau
Given the European context on end-of-waste criteria on biodegradable waste subject to biological treatment, but also the national context on fertilization & renewable energy production from biogas, the purpose of this paper is to address current and future management options developed in France, a major agricultural country, for urban sewage sludge, mixed and sorted municipal solid waste, agro-industrial wastes and farm residues.
Use of compost and digestate in Italy: quality requirments, labelling and use in southern European soils
Dr. Massimo Centemero, Werner Zanardi
The Europe has reached excellent levels of compost production. The total amount of compost quality in EU is estimated about 12 mln tons di compost in 27 European countries. Does ‘n exist an European legislation on quality criteria for compost. Every countries sets rules for compost production and use. Is necessary to establish laws or regulations to harmonized the quality levels of compost.
Food waste from canteens
Dipl.-Ing. Gerold Hafner, M.Sc. Claudia Maurer, M. Sc. Annika Hilse, o. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Kranert
Since some years, one important topic of scientific work at the University of Stuttgart is the monitoring, evaluation and minimization of food waste. In this context ISWA-Institute at University of Stuttgart is cooperating in an international investigation project: “GreenCook - transnational strategy for global sustainable food management” GreenCook is elaborated in the frame of Interreg IVB NWE (North West Europe). The project-period is lasting from 2010 – 2013. Project-partners come from Belgium, France, Netherlands, UK and Germany. Further authors H. Schuller, Y. Wong, K. Anastasiou - University of Stuttgart (ISWA)
The European Compost Network - ten years of successful engagement in biowaste management
Dr. Jane Gilbert
This presentation sets out the ethos and main activities of the European Compost Network since its inception ten years ago in 2002.
United Kingdom - experience with implementing and promoting the quality protocols for compost and digestate
Dr. Mariachiara Zennaro, Emily Nichols
The leading industry standard for composted source-segregated biowastes, BSI PAS 100, has become well known within the UK’s waste management industry. It was developed in 2002 by Association for Organics Recycling’s (AfOR) with the British Standards Institution, with support from the Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP). Its scope allows composting of controlled, source-segregated, biodegradable wastes, and it includes minimum compost quality criteria. Its sustained promotion by AfOR and WRAP has strengthened demand for quality composts in horticulture, landscape, agriculture and other markets. Building on experience with PAS 100, an equivalent specification for anaerobic digestates, BSI’s PAS 110, was published in 2010.
France - quality expectations of farmers and consumers
Jean-Luc Martel
This paper associates three complementary contributions respectively brought by Suez Environnement/Terralys and by 2 representatives of the agricultural sector, that will dress a comprehensive feedback regarding the current state of recycled fertilising products quality level and use in France and more particularly in west of France. Further authors: B. Decoopman - Chambre RĂ©gionale d’Agriculture de Bretagne, France; E. Porcher - farmer, France; B. Hernandez - Terralys, subsidiary of Suez Environnement, France
Mechanical biological treatment of municipal waste: impact of retention time of the Rotary Drum Reactor
Marie Orvain - Jouault, HĂ©lĂšne Bacheley
Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) is a proven technology for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). The number of MBT plants is increasing significantly in recent years. In a significant number of these plants, the three major elements are a Rotary Drum Reactor (RDR) for preparation of the waste, an anaerobic digestion system for organic matter degradation and energy recovery followed by a composting step for organic matter stabilisation. Although industrial feedback exists, there is a lack of scientific results at industrial scale. For that reason, Veolia Environnement Recherche et Innovation (VERI), with the support of the Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maßtrise de l'Energie (ADEME), carried out a research project to evaluate the performance of an MBT of residual municipal solid waste (rMSW) including a 24-m RDR from the VEOLIA-operated industrial site of Champagne sur Oise, the VERI semiindustrial (21m3) dry anaerobic digester at Graincourt les Havrincourt and the VERI pilot-scale (160L) composting reactors at Limay. The objective of the project was to evaluate the impact of the retention time of the RDR, which varied between 1.5 and 4 days, on the performance of the biogas production in the mesophilic anaerobic digestion, the compostability of the digestate and the agronomic value of the final product. Further authors: A. Bellegarde, H. Olczyk, A. Covez, F. Lebrisse, R. Lecarpentier, J.A. Cacho Rivero - Veolia Environnement Recherche et Innovation; Y. Crepel - Veolia Propreté
MANEV life+ project for manure management in Europe: composting in the region of Murcia, Spain
Prof. Dr. Maria-Pilar Bernal, Rafael Clemente
The objective of the project is to demonstrate that both the use of treatment technology and an environmentally correct management scheme of pig manure can contribute to a reduction of GHG emissions and simultaneously improve the farmers’ sustainability. Further authors: S. PĂ©rez-Balibrea, J. LĂłpez-CarratalĂĄ, M.A. Bustamante - Centro de EdafologĂ­a y BiologĂ­a Aplicada del Segura, Spain
Mechanical-biological waste process of municipal solid waste: pilot laboratory project
Yves Bernard
From October 2008 to May 2009, the Centre de recherche industrielle du Québec (CRIQ) performed a pilot laboratory project on behalf of the City of Montreal, pertaining to energy recovered from municipal solid waste (MSW) through mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), a process which combines mechanical components (grinding and sifting) with a biological component (biological drying). Further authors: M. Daigle, O. Solomatnikova, M.-A. St-Pierre - Centre de recherche industrielle du Québec
Benefit of a good aeration management in composting
HĂ©lĂšne Bacheley
The sustainability and the development of composting activity depend on the capacity to produce, by efficient processes, compost with high agronomic and environmental quality and minimum health and environmental impacts. As composting is an aerobic process, one of the main ways to improve its management consists in using an appropriate aeration strategy. Indeed, this parameter influences not only the oxygen availability, but also other essential parameters such as moisture content and temperature. Therefore, the aims of this work were (i) to identify an optimised aeration strategy and then (ii) prove and quantify, by experimental results, the benefit of a good-aeration according to process indicators (temperature, gaseous emissions and matter biodegradation). Further authors: L. Berthe, P. Zan-Alvarez, M. Chevallier, A. Covez, R. Lecarpentier, M. Jolly, A. Ponthieux - Veolia Environnement Recherche & Innovation
Production of organic fertilizers from residues of the olive oil processing industry
Dr. Jennifer E. Bilbao, Siegfried Egner, Prof. Dr. Thomas Hirth
This study proves that it is possible to convert digested residues from the olive oil processing industry into a compact organic soil improver. Moreover, it was demonstrated that drying and pelletizing digestate are excellent processes to stabilize and reduce the mass of the product (98%) creating a competitive commercial fertilizer. Further authors: M.S. Stoll, N.A. Valarezo - Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology (IGB)
Comparison of sapromat and oxitop-method for analysing respiration activity (AT4)
Dipl.-Ing Erwin Binner, Dr. Katharina Böhm, O.Univ.Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Peter Lechner
In the run-up for amending the Austrian landfill ordinance, parameters were developed to assess the stability/reactivity of mechanical-biologically pre-treated residual waste. The Landfill Ordinance 2008 (= Deponieverordnung 2008) regulates limit values for Respiration Activity (= “AtmungsaktivitĂ€t”) AT4 < 7 mgO2/g DM, Gas Generation Sum GS21 < 20 Nl/kg DM and alternatively Gas Evolution (= “Gasbildung”) GB21 < 20 Nl/kg DM). Methods for analysing these parameters were established by the Austrian Standards Institute (OE-NORM S2027 - 1 to 3, 2004a, b and c). As laboratory practice shows, these methods also are used for the assessment of other wastes (e.g. sewage sludge, commercial waste, material from abandoned sites, bio-waste compost). For measurement of respiration activity in Austria mainly two equipments are used - SapromatÂź and OxiTopÂź. Whether respectively to what extent these two methods give same results, is discussed in this paper.
External influences on the energy efficiency of composting plants
Dipl.-Forsting.(FH) M.Sc. Daniel Meyer, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eckhard Kraft
With regard to energy efficiency as a major tool to reduce the use of fossil energies and to enable the conversion to a sustainable energy system, also biological waste treatment technologies have to improve their specific energy efficiency i.e. the energy used for a specific amount of biological waste utilised. To increase the energy efficiency of composting plants two general approaches seem to be viable.
Sugar cane trask as an alternative substrate of bagasse for production of the Pleurotus sajor caju mushroom
Miss Yaswaree Mihilall, Prof.Dr. Romeela Mohee
The Pleurotus sajor-caju mushroom (oyster mushroom) grows naturally on logs, tree stumps and dead wood (Bonatti et al., 2003). Apart from being a high protein food source, this white basidiomycete is increasingly triggering interest in the pharmaceutical field owing to its immeasurable health benefits. Subsequently, the Pleurotus sajor caju has several properties acting as immunomodulators, anticancer and antimicrobial agents, having antihypertensive effects and lowering blood lipid concentrations (Daba et al., 2008). Moreover, the mushroom’s extensive range of temperature adaptation and its ability to produce a broad spectrum of lignocellulolytic enzymes, thus favouring ease of substrate availability, makes it the easiest, fastest, cheapest to grow, requiring less preparation time and production technology.
Effects of alkaline pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion process of vegetables wastes
Prof.Dr. Romeela Mohee
Methane is produced by methanogenic bacteria from acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon dioxide and from other substrates of which formic acid and methanol are the most important (Bouallagui et al., 2005) during the anaerobic digestion of organic biomass. The objectives of this study consisted in setting up laboratory–scale biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay digesters at mesophilic conditions to assess the effectiveness of alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment in improving the anaerobic digestion process for biogas production from mixed vegetable wastes. Further Authors: A. Mudhoo - National Research Chair in Solid Waste Management, Mauritius V.D. Ramdeen - National Research Chair in Solid Waste Management, Mauritius
Digestate and compost quality - case studies at anaerobic disgestion plants with the BTA Process
Rita Nimmrichter, Dipl. Ing. Stephan H. Schulte, Ulrich Niefnecker
The key for the successful anaerobic digestion of biowaste and/or municipal solid waste is an efficient removal of the impurities before the digestion step. This is not only indispensable for the reliability of the process and therefore the plant availability, but furthermore for the quality of the produced digestate or final compost. With the existing developments within the EU, the quality of the digestate / compost has become a focus of attention. Further Authors: P. Bolzano - Biotec Sistemi s.r.l. J. Del’haye - IVVO
Industrial potato peel composting: Blend formulation using mixture design analysis
Micaela A. R. Soares
Potato peel (PP) is a surplus material from the industry of processed potato products, like French fries, chips and puree, which create disposal, sanitation, and environmental problems. Given its high content of organic compounds (namely starch, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and fermentable sugars), composting may constitute an interesting option to enhance PP valorisation. Further Authors: Margarida M.J. Quina - Chemical Engineering Department of University of Coimbra Rosa Quinta-Ferreira - Chemical Engineering Department of University of Coimbra
Struvite precipitation as a Technology to be integrated in a farm scale anaerobic Digestion-composting Treatment plant
Jordi Palatsi, August BonmatĂ­
Manures which are potentially fertilizers or soil conditioners must be considered as resources that should be managedadequately. The farm SAT Sant Mer decided to include a biogas/composting plant to manage the excess of manureproduced. In order to improve nutrient management and to reduce cropland requirements, the inclusion of a struviteprecipitation process was assessed in lab-scale and pilot-scale experiments.A serial of batch and continuous experiments were conducted to assess the influence of operational parameters onstruvite crystallization (pH, temperature and alkalinity). Further Authors: J.Vicens - Aprofitaments EnergĂštics AgrĂ­coels M. Cerrillo - IRTA. GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC
Overview and prediction of eradication of Salmonella seftenberg W775 During anaerobic Digestion and pasteurization processes
Dr. Jaak Ryckeboer
There is a great demand from public authorities at regional, federal and European level for more research on the biosafety of digestates originating from anaerobic digestion. Literature study shows that the current knowledge on thissubject is fragmentary and that biosafety seems to be dependent on the input materials. We aimed to provide policysupporting advice concerning the biosafety of anaerobic digestion and the pre- and post-treatment processes which areused for the processing of a continuously growing variety of agricultural and organic biological waste products. A first objective was to map out the international literature concerning the hygiene of biological processing in regard tohuman and animal pathogens. Further Authors: D. Springael - KU Leuven A. Ceustermans - KU Leuven A.H. Geeraerd - KU Leuven
Ecotoxicological Impacts of biodegradable polymers in agricultural soils
Dr Pascale. Chenon, Nicolas Thevenin, Najat Nassr
The market relevance for biodegradable polymers has been increasing for a few years. A benefit for the reduction of landfill-waste, a high public acceptance and a positive company image are the driving forces behind their soar.Biodegradable polymers can reach agricultural soils either by composting flow (as bags or packaging) or as mulching film. Further Authors: L. Kremer - RITTMO AgroEnvironnement A-L. Badin - RITTMO AgroEnvironnement
The waste management system on Langkawi Island, Malaysia - options for waste Treatment
Edward I. Stentiford, John R. Barton
The island of Langkawi, situated in the north west of Peninsular Malaysia, is the one of the major tourist attractions in South East Asia with area of around 360 sq km around 100,000 permanent residents (2010). As a result of tourism the number of visitors to the island could reach more than 2 million a year creating strong pressure on municipal services, especially on the waste management system. Further authors: S. Mohd Razi - University of Leeds, UK
Modelling of sprout suppression of Fusarium sp. and DON toxin in anaerobic hydrolysis
Györgyi Biró, Lili Mézes
In recent years the rainfall and moisture conditions, the long term surface water cover and low temperature are resulted together favourable conditions for microbial fungi in Hungary. The species of Fusarium strain are hibernated on the soil and vegetation residues and next year their conidia attack different parts of the plants. Fusarium graminearum is the most important agricultural pathogens in Hungary. This fungi decreases cereal quality (for example maize), furthermore may cause yield loss. Due to its toxin production, the fungi could have dangerous animal and human pathogen effect. Mainly trichothecene type mycotoxins can be found in Hungary; especially the DON (deoxynivalenol) toxin has detected and appeared on cereals. Further authors: A. Nagy, B. Gålya, J. Borbély, J. Tamas - University of Debrecen
Organic waste composts as potential fertilisers for cereal prodktion in developing merket
MSc Peeter LÀÀniste, Dr. Mait Kriipsalu, Helis Rossner, Alar Astover
Production of waste compost is well established in many European countries. In developing markets, however, the waste composts are not fully accepted as conventional organic fertilisers. The nutrient value of composts must be studied locally. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential fertilisation value of two composts for cereal production.
Fate of soil-applied olive mill wastewater and potential phytotoxicity assessed by two bioassay methods
Ph.D. Yael Laor, Dr. Michael Raviv, Ido Aviani
Controlled land spreading of untreated olive mill wastewater (OMW) has been widely practiced as a mean of their disposal and is now permitted by law in several countries. In this respect, OMW is considered as a natural fertilizer, which, at proper application rates, is not harmful to crops and can be disposed of without causing environmental damage. Still, the inherent phytotoxicity of OMW is of major concern and requires careful management. Multiple studies based their phytotoxicity assessments on soil extracts, while it is questionable whether extract-based bioassays reflect reliably the actual phytotoxicity of the soil in situ. Further authors: L. Saadi - Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya'ar Research Center, Ramat-Yishay, Israel Sh. Berkovich - Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya'ar Research Center, Ramat-Yishay, Israel A. Hanan - Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Ya'ar Research Center, Ramat-Yishay, Israel
Administrative and economic tools for promoting biodegradable waste diversion from landfill
Dr. Katia Lasaridi, Christina Chroni, Antonis Zorpas, Dr. Konstadinos Abeliotis
During the last decade the waste management landscape in European Union (EU) Member States (MS) is being reconstructed to a lesser or greater extent, due to the pressures exercised by the EU policy and legislation. This “reconstruction” is quite radical in MS that did not already have in place complex material and resource recovery systems by the mid 1990s. The European Landfill Directive (LD -1999/31/EC) is placed among the most influential documents, as it sets increasingly demanding diversion targets for the biodegradable fraction (BMW) of municipal solid wastes (MSW) and requires from MS to adopt policies together with administrative and economic tools for the diversion of the biodegradable fraction of municipal waste. Further Author: K. Heilakis - Harokopio University, Department of Home Economics and Ecology, GR
Anaerobic co-digestion of brown water with kitchen waste in decentralized, source-separation-based sanitation concepts
Jun Wei Lim
Current centralized sanitation systems adopted by many developed and developing countries minimize the exposure of wastewater to citizens by flushing them away from households. However, the transportation process consumes large amounts of energy and water and gives rise to diluted sewage. In contrast, decentralized sanitation systems that treat source separated wastewaters would encourage the recycling of nutrients for agriculture, reduce household water consumption significantly and generate a source of clean energy. This study is initiated by an attempt to redefine urban communities as renewable resource recovery centres through the adaptation of “decentralized and source-separationbased sanitation concepts. Further Authors: R. Rajinikanth - Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Y. Mao - Nanyang Technological University, Singapore I. Ho - Nanyang Technological University, Singapore A. Ahamed - Nanyang Technological University, Singapore J. Y. Wang - Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
How compatible are compostable bags with major industrial composting and digestion technologies?
Christian Letalik, Dr. Bettina Fink, Andreas Ziermann
Industrial composting has widely implemented across in Germany for over 20 years. During the last decade and driven by legislation, the separate collection of organic waste has grown more and more popular. As a result, a broad variety of technologies of industrial composting and anaerobic digestion are in place. According to the BundesgĂŒtegemeinschaft Kompost’s (BGK; the German Quality Assurance Association for Compost) classification scheme, there are eight major types of process, so-called ‘Hygiene-Baumusterkategorien’, which differ a lot with regard to their technical components and composting/digestion times.
Evaluation framework to compare the sustainability of different applications of biomass waste
K. Vanbroekhoven, Saskia Manshoven, Ive Vanderreydt
In recent years the demand for biomass as a renewable energy source has increased spectacularly. Biomass has started to play an important role in the production of heat, electricity and bio-fuels, contributing significantly to the achievement of the EU renewable energy objectives. Apart from energy applications, biomass is a versatile resource for food, feed, fibre, construction material or raw material for the chemical industry. As the amount of biomass that can be produced and mobilized in a sustainable way is limited, questions arise on the most optimal and sustainable way to use the available biomass streams. Further Authors: M. Uyttebroek - VITO NV, Flemish Institute for Technological Research N. Devriendt - VITO NV, Flemish Institute for Technological Research L. Pelkmans - VITO NV, Flemish Institute for Technological Research
Optimisation of the aerobic maturation process of the MSW digestate on Montpellier ametyst plant
Jean-Luc Martel, Olivier Greze
Due to an increasing environmental pressure affecting regulation of waste treatment in developed countries, new solutions of collection, specific treatment and recycling of organic waste appear in many countries in order to lower the quantities of organic waste that directly sent towards land filling or incineration. The growing scarcity and increasing price of fossil energy leads towards the more and more systematic integration of an anaerobic digestion stage in the biological treatment of bio waste or mixed waste. Further Authors: O. Garone - Suez Environnement, CIRSEE, France A. Sommain - Ametyst, SITA Méditerranée, France
Can two-stage anaerobic digestion improve energy recovery from biomass?
Ester Manzini, Andrea Schievano, Prof. Fabrizio Adani
Biogas production from agriculture, farming and food-industry residues and waste is getting more and more important in the field of renewable energy sources. The two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) allows producing both biohydrogen and biomethane (Wang et al., 2003) and shows to have other advantages compared to the AD process (one-stage). For example, it promises to be a possibile solution to increase the overall energy recovery from biomass, as shown in studies carried out on carbohidrate-rich substrates (Kreamer & Bagley, 2005). Further Author: S. Lonati - UniversitĂ  degli Studi di Milano
Key european players and potential application of microalgae in WWTPs
Elena Marzo, Lynne Bouchy, Alexandre GalĂ­
With the aim of studying the potential to integrate microalgae into wastewater treatment for bioremediation and energy production purposes, different actors, projects and technologies on the microalgae sector have been studied, mainly in Europe. Information on microalgae for wastewater treatment is mainly based on research activities and so the most relevant information has been published by means of scientific papers. Further Authors: L.Constans - CIRSEE N. Landes - Degremont North American R&D Center
Plant available nitrogen and phosphorus from composted waste materials
Dr Munoo Prasad, Michael Gaffney, Prof John Cassidy
Current EU legislation on waste management (2008/98/EC) and conservation of water systems (91/676/EEC) has seen a growth in the area of compost research. Traditionally the commercial crop growing and agricultural industries have used inorganic fertilisers as the main source to supply nutrients to crops and plants. Further Author: A. Lee - Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St. Dublin 8
Automatic process control for anaerobic digestion
Dipl.-Ing. Daniel Löffler, Dr.-Ing. Dipl.-Chem. Klaus Fischer, o. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Kranert
The aim of research was to develop a simple and cost-efficient control strategy, which besides secure maintenance of a stable process allows to automatically adjust to user-defined operation states. By these means the operation of the process can be simplified. A well-directed adjustment of the operation state allows the optimization of plant operation.
Local assessment of toxicity for municipal solid waste through life cycle assessment and usetox
PhD Mathilde Marchand, Dr. Lynda Aissani, Pascal Mallard
This research takes part in a PhD work aiming to develop an assessment methodology for local environmental impacts of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide elements of choice to local decision-makers. MSW management is a local issue managed under the responsibility of French local authorities. These local authorities are currently threatened by a shortage risk of treatment facilities for MSW. This shortage is the result of overall treatment capacity reduction of existing facilities and, concomitantly the result of the low number of new facilities. Further Authors: F. BĂ©line - Irstea, UR GERE, France J.P. RĂ©veret - UQAM, MONTREAL
Influencing the germination of different crops by liquid biogas digestate
Marianna MakĂĄdi, V. Orosz, MiklĂłs GulyĂĄs, J. Lengyel
Anaerobic digestion (AD) of solid and liquid organic wastes is vastly increased world-wide. This process has a lot of positive effects on the environment, among others the use of AD’s by-product, the digestate, in the agriculture. Digestate could be a liquid or solid material with high nutrient and organic matter content which is appropriate to, at least partly, substitute for artificial fertilizers because of its favourable effect on the development and increase of plants. Digestate can be used before sowing and in this case, it has effect on the germination of crop sown. Therefore our aim was to study the effect of a liquid digestate on the germination and early development of different plants grown in our region. We examined the modification effect of soil type and application times on the effect of applied digestate and we studied the differences among the tested plant species.
Compo-ball: novelon-line composting monitoring syste. first results
Ing Horst MĂŒller, Marga LĂłpez
Composting is nature's way of recycling organic waste into valuable fertiliser. It is a natural biological process in which microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi break down organic matter. Composting is an easy process but needs to be well controlled to optimise the compost quality and to avoid undesirable odours or germs and loss of nutrients. An optimal composting process will also reduce the volume and weight of organic waste significantly as the composting process converts much of the biodegradable component to gaseous carbon dioxide. Further Authors: X. Martínez-Farré - ESAB-DEAB, Universitat PolitÚcnica de Catalunya
Isolation and screening of thermophilic and psychotrophs bacterial strains used in the composting process
Prof. Dr. Ji Li
Psychrotrophs and thermophilic are two categories of microbes who can survive in extreme low and high temperature environments. Theoretically, the introduction of such micro-organisms can increase the initial temperature at the early mesophilic phase or maintain the high temperature at the thermophilic phase of aerobic composting. And the key is to find the strains growing fast and decomposing efficiently of protein, starch, cellulose and other organic substances in different temperature environments. Further authors: L. Y. Wang - Department of Ecology and Ecological Engineering, China D. M. Wang - Department of Ecology and Ecological Engineering, China
Benefits and challenges of compostable plastics: Lessons from San Francisco and beyond in the USA
J. Macy
This paper provides an overview of benefits and challenges of compostable plastics based on lessons learned from San Francisco's composting program and elsewhere in the USA. Compostable bags and compostable food service ware can offer real benefits, including facilitating increased diversion of food scraps and reducing non- compostable plastic contamination of compost. However, compostable plastics present real challenges and uncertainty for consumers and end-of-life processors. These benefits and challenges are presented in the context of San Francisco’s food composting program and zero waste policies and other experiences in the USA.
Soil N2O emissions from recovered organic waste applications in Versailles plain (France)
Patricia Laville, Joel Michelin, Sabine Houot
Within the framework of the French Gessol3 programme (Prostock project) we sought to characterize the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from organic wastes used on the Versailles plain in relation with the main soil types of this area (221 km2). Four different soils with various textures were chosen (WRB classification): - (1) a haplic luvisol (2) a calcaric cambisol - (3) a stagnic cambisol and - (4) a cambisol. Further Authors: A. Djerrah - UMR 1091 INRA/ AgroParisTech « Environnement et Grandes Cultures » F-78850 Thiverval Grignon, France J. C. Gueudet - UMR 1091 INRA/ AgroParisTech « Environnement et Grandes Cultures » F-78850 Thiverval Grignon, France J. N. Rampon - UMR 1091 INRA/ AgroParisTech « Environnement et Grandes Cultures » F-78850 Thiverval Grignon, France C. Labat - UMR 1091 INRA/ AgroParisTech « Environnement et Grandes Cultures » F-78850 Thiverval Grignon, France E. Vaudour - UMR 1091 INRA/ AgroParisTech « Environnement et Grandes Cultures » F-78850 Thiverval Grignon, France
Experience of develping a compost quality assuranca scheme in Ireland
Conor McGovern, Dr Munoo Prasad
rx3, www.rx3.ie, is a Department of the Environment, Community & Local Government (DECLG) Programme established to help develop markets for recycled material in Ireland to form new products, including compost. Barriers to market development for compost products in Ireland identified in the past included the lack of a compost quality assurance scheme (CQAS) and a national compost quality standard (CQS) to prove that the process has been independently verified as being bona-fide and the compost is high quality and suitable for the intended purpose. rx3 has an objective to address this issue by working with stakeholders and using existing work. Further Authors: J. O'Neill - Department of the Environment, Community & Local Government
Bioplastic production by hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria
Diana Ramirez-Sáenz
The polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polymers that are produced from a variety of bacterial genera as Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Alcanivorax which are synthesized under conditions of shortage of certain nutrients and excess of carbon source (Anderson et al., 1990). According to research, PHAs, including poly-3-hydroxibutirate (PHB), has been determined to have thermoplastic properties similar to petroleum products, as well by their nature are readily biodegradable. Therefore new trends involve the implementation of these polymers as possible replacements for conventional plastics, but it is necessary solve the problems that limit their large scale production. Further authors: F. Ledezma-Garcia - UPIIG-IPN, MĂ©xico M. J. Aguilar-MĂ©ndez - UPIIG-IPN, MĂ©xico B. RodrĂ­guez-ChĂĄvez - UPIIG-IPN, MĂ©xico M. CĂĄndido-Mireles - UPIIG-IPN, MĂ©xico P. ZĂĄrate-Segura - UPIIG-IPN, MĂ©xico
Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass for oxygen removal from bio-oil
M.Sc. FĂĄbio L. Mendes, M.Sc. Andrea R. Pinho, Dr. Marco AntĂŽnio G. de Figueiredo
The pyrolysis of biomass is a thermal process that converts, at high yield, solid biomass into a liquid product known as bio-oil by using a silica inert material to transfer heat and volatilize the biomass particles. One alternative for the production of a bio-oil of better quality and with lower oxygen content is the use of catalysts in the pyrolysis reactor, rather than an inert, a process called catalytic pyrolysis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects on product yields and the qualities of products of two different catalysts, one acidic, a commercial fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst, and a basic one containing hydrotalcite.
Life cycle assessment as a decision tool in local waste management? A french case study
Dr Jacques Mery, Dr. Lynda Aissani
It is now a bit more than a decade that LCA is being used as a decision making tool in waste management, in France and other European countries. Among the different tools available for environmental assessment, LCA is expected to fit particularly well the demand for global and exhaustive environmental evaluation of waste management scenarios. While specialised waste LCA tools already exist on the market, the adequate adaptation of the methodology to this particular field is still under discussion. Further Authors: K. Schlierf - ENGEES, France R. Barbier - ENGEES, France C. Beurois -MĂ©diation & Environnement, France
Micro-gas grids - an innovative approach for optimizing energy efficiency from biogas production
Dr.-Ing. Olga Panic-Savanovic, B. Sc. Arunee Tan, Dr.-Ing. Dipl.-Chem. Klaus Fischer, o. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Kranert
Against the background of increasing governmental pressure to generate energy from biomass without compromising environmental sustainability, the University of Stuttgart investigates the intelligent concept of micro-gas grids in the context of the EU Central project "SEBE - Sustainable and Innovative European Biogas Environment".
Increase of bio-waste recovery with low-cost technologies in San Carlos City Philippines
Dr. Johannes G. Paul, Klaus Hanuschke, Arthur A. Batomalaque
Solid waste management (SWM) is a serious and growing problem in many developing countries. Although environmental awareness is increasing, the existing waste management systems cannot cope with accelerating waste generation, especially in fast growing urban areas. Hence, the Philippines released a new waste management law, the Republic Act 9003, in January 2001. Despite this law, waste disposal remains uncontrolled at many dumpsites that lack management, monitoring and environmental protection. Consequently, leachate and gas emissions are generated and pollute air and water resources and threaten public health and the environment. Further Auther: Loreto C. Sanchez - SWM Office, Local Government
Malagasy urban and livestock waste: characterization and modelling of their transformation in soil
Nantenaina Rabetokotany-Rarivoson, Laurent ThuriĂšs, Marc Pansu, Dominique Masse
The need to effectively deal with disposal of human and animal residues continues to be a challenge as population increases. Known as Exogenous Organic Matter (EOM), these residues represent unused resources that can be transformed into an opportunity to create a new supply, turning an issue into a solution. In agriculture, the practice of using EOM as a crop fertilizer can be ecologically sound, both solving a waste management problem and reducing the cost of chemical fertilizer. The management of EOM and valorization is based on the understanding of EOM composition by its categories, biochemical and physicochemical characteristics. Further Author: T.M. Razafimbelo - LRI UR Sol et Changements Climatiques
Operation strategy of grease and municipal sewage sludge co-digestion: Results of continuous trials
Ana PĂ©rez, Lynne Bouchy, Maria Fdz-Polanco, Patricia Camacho
To this day, biogas production on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and use has not been optimised, as in many cases it was operated as a means of stabilising sludge, and not recovering energy. Furthermore, many sectors of activity lead to the production of different types of organic wastes. For these reasons, co-digestion strategies are considered a good way to enhance anaerobic digestion performances and the production of biogas (Mata-Álvarez et al., 2000). Grease is a waste produced on WWTP and usually disposed of. Further Authors: R. Cano - University of Valladolid A. Nielfa - University of Valladolid
Vegetable wastes characterization for feed production in the basque country
David San Martin
Almost three-quarters pairs of vegetable wastes generated from food surplus finish in a landfill, in spite of having the potential to be valued as raw material for animal feed if they are managed properly. In addition, the dependence on the traditional raw materials by feed manufactures makes necessary to look for alternatives. In this sense, this study, as a part of a European LIFE 09 ENV ES 473 Project, is located in the Basque Country (north of Spain) and has been firstly focused on vegetable wastes characterization.
Fertilization practices on periurban farming system and recyclage organic residual product available in Mahajanga
Enseignante chercheur Heriniaina Ramahefarison, Dominique Masse, Christine Aubry
In Mahajanga, Madagascar's provincial city with around 250.000 inhabitants, the urban population growth around 3% per year and concomitantly the need of food It is an opportunity for the development of a periurban agriculture to meet this growing demand. Soil fertility management is determinant in plant production. Market gardening currently suffers from a lack of organic fertilizers and minerals fertilizers remain inaccessible for a significant proportion of producers.
An innovative assay to measure anaerobic biodegradability of organic wastes in two days
Nathalie Pautremat
Anaerobic digestion is a biochemical process, where, in the absence of oxygen, bacteria break down organic materials to produce biogas. Many different kinds of biomass can be used as substrates, such as energy crops, putrescible organic wastes, manure, water-treatment sludge, algae or a combination of waste materials. Since the mid 90’s, anaerobic digestion is seen as an alternative to stockpiling of waste and to the world’s finite fossil-fuel resources (Ahring, 2003). Until now anaerobic biodegradability has been conventionally estimated by Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) or predicted by models with biochemical characterization as data inputs (Buffiùre et al, 2006). Further Author: Y. Dudal - ENVOLURE, Montpellier
Stabilisation of the solid fraction of a digestate by composting and vermicomposting
S. Mato, Rubén Rodríguez
The number of anaerobic digestion facilities has increased remarkably over the last years. Anaerobic digestion constitutes an advantageous process as compared to other waste treatment options because it allows the net withdrawal of energy while treating organic waste. A key step for the success of anaerobic digestion is the correct management of the final digestates produced. Digestates may constitute valuable soil amendments and/or fertilizers due to their high content in organic matter and plant nutrients. Nevertheless many digestates are not completely stabilised and may content human pathogens; therefore they cannot be applied to the soil directly without a previous stabilization treatment. Research into cost-efficient stabilization techniques for digestates is therefore essential for the adequate development and success of anaerobic digestion. Further Authors: Lazcano, C. - FundaciĂłn CETMAR RodrĂ­guez, E. - Universidad de Vigo Taboada, J. - FundaciĂłn CETMAR
Kintetic study of the mesophilic and thermophilic sewage sludge anaerobic digestion
Prof. Joan Mata-Álvarez
Wastewater treatment plants generate sewage sludge as a by-product of the physical, chemical and biological processes used during the wastewater treatment. In these plants, anaerobic digestion has been used, for more than a century, to stabilize the sewage sludge produced. At the present time, most anaerobic digesters are operated at mesophilic conditions. However, the need to improve the process feasibility, by means of increasing the biogas yield and reducing the sludge disposal costs, has increased the interest in thermophilic conditions. In this topic, the thermophilic anaerobic digestion offers some potential advantages over conventional mesophilic anaerobic digestion: (i) an increase of the biological and chemical reaction rates, (ii) an increase of the organic matter removal, (iii) a higher solubilization of the particulate organic matter and (iv) an enhancement of the pathogenic organism destruction. Further Authors: M. Peces - Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Barcelona S. Astals - Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Barcelona
Assessing GHG emissions from sludge treatment and disposal routes - the method behind GESTABoues tool
Marilys Pradel
In 2007, 1 100 000 tons of sewage sludge were produced in France. This figure is constantly increasing and sludges have to be eliminated. Four disposal routes are currently possible: land spreading (directly or after composting), incineration, incineration with household wastes and landfilling. These different disposal routes as well as the sludge treatments produce greenhouse gases (GHG). To help stakeholders to better understand the carbon footprint of sludge treatment and disposal options, we developed a tool called GESTABoues. Further Author: A.L. Reverdy - Irstea
Optimization of batch bio-H2 and methane production from raw cheese whey
Mikel Orive, Marta Cebrian
Due to the renewed interest of finding new sources of green energy, biologically produced hydrogen (bio-H2) from biomass and mixed cultures is a promising alternative. Under anaerobic conditions, a wide range of food wastes can be used as substrates to generate bio-H2.
Compositional space constraints distort C mineralization models of organic residues
Ph.D. LĂ©on-Étienne Parent, S-É Parent
Carbon mineralization of organic residues in soils is a complex process where labile C is mineralized to end products and stable C accumulates in the soil. The CO2 evolving during C mineralization in soils contributes to global warming while microbial byproducts and stable C contribute to soil aggregation and C sequestration. The capacity of the soil to sequester C physically, chemically and biochemically depends not only on soil minerals but also on biochemical composition of added organic residues. In C models, biochemical and ash fractions of organic residues are often related to the mineralization of labile C using regression analysis.
Compost and fermentation residues used as litter materials in dairy farming
Dr. Werner Philipp, Ludwig E. Hoelzle
In dairy farming, litter materials have an essential influence on health and production performance of animals and therefore, on the quality of the comestible milk. As straw has recently become an essential cost factor in dairy farming, alternative options are in demand. In this study, selected materials were tested for their hygienic-microbiological quality, i.e. compost barns, litter materials from dry fermentation residues as well as composted fermentation residues, composted garden and forest waste. Further Author: K. Schwarzkopf - University of Hohenheim
Ethanol production using complex anaerobic inoculum: Effect of PH on the fermentation profile of Glucose and Xylose
Théodore Bouchez
The regulatory and political context in France and Europe gives strong incentives for the development of transportation biofuels during the ten coming years (EU Directive 2003/30/CE). The environmental benefit of using first generation biofuels (agro-fuels) is however questionable (Kalogo et al., 2007). In this framework, the development of bioethanol from other organic resources such as household waste has been reported to be more economically and environmentally attractive. We are therefore working on the coupling of an ethanol production reactor to existing anaerobic digestion processes. Household waste being a complex and heterogeneous matrix, yeast fermentation would require energy-intensive pretreatments. Further Authors: M. Bouix, L. Mazeas, C. Madigou, C.M. RichardA. Guenne, T. Labatut
Multi-component heat and mass transport model for composting process: Experimental validation
S. Pommier, Gérald Debenest, Michel Quintard, Damien Chenu
Composting consists in an aerobic process where the organic matter from wastes is biodegraded and converted into a stable granular material called compost. Even if composting is considered to be based on natural phenomenon, it is governed by very complex mechanisms, involving many parameters such as quality and accessibility of the nutriments for micro-organisms, local oxygen content, temperature of the medium, pH, moisture content, and so on (Mustin, 1987, Diaz et al., 2007;). These parameters directly affect biodegradation kinetics. Moreover, they are interdependent and impacted by the operating conditions, which make difficult the understanding of the process.
Valoristaion of biomass waste streams in local energy conversion parks
Dr. ir. Jan Broeze, Luc Pelkmans
Biomass is considered as one of the main alternatives for the use of fossil fuels. Current production of bioenergy is strongly driven by policy support and subsidies. Focus mostly lays on the use of clean biomass streams like wood or food crops, often imported from the other side of the world. Energy production plants are specifically dedicated to one specific biomass product with one conversion technology and with one specific output (electricity, or heat, or biofuel). Further Authors: N. Devriendt, R. Guisson, H. Pieper, N. Marquez-Luzardo, J. Venselaar, M. Van Dael, S. Van Passel, P. Vollaard, P. Reumerman, K. Coppoolse
GHG emissions during the composting process as a function of the aeration strategy
B. Puyuelo, Teresa Gea, Dr. Antoni SĂĄnchez
Composting is an aerobic thermophilic biodegradation process that requires oxygen to stabilize the organic wastes and optimal moisture content for the microorganisms development (Haug, 1993). Several parameters as C/N ratio, material porosity, moisture content and aeration rules for the oxygen supply must be analyzed and controlled to optimize the process development. Frequently, aeration is defined as the most important factor for the process performance. Further Author: C. Maulini
First stepd in the development of a compostable shoe
Ramón Plana, S. Mato
The use of organic material as feedstock in the production of clothes, utensils and then in the industry has been a constant in human society. The exponential exploit of these natural resources generally does not return to the environment, because when the life cycle of these products are exhausted, often they are considered waste materials and find a final fate in landfills or industrial incinerators, with a high environmental cost. Further Authors: D. Alves - University of Vigo E. Rodríguez - University of Vigo E. Segarra - Puentelago Añil A. del Val - gea21
gEsTABOUES a desision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and disposal routes
Anne- Laure Reverdy, Marilys Pradel
Sewage sludge production increases continously reaching almost 20% (946 700 tons of dry matters in 2003 to 1 118 795 tons of dry matters in 2007) during the last decade.
Reducing the environmental impact of biogenic PHAs production using an enzymatic recovery strategy
Pr Elisabeth Girbal-Neuhauser
Bioplastics, in particular polyhydroxyalcanoates (PHAs), are widely studied as biodegradable materials for substitution of oil derived polymers. However, their production at an industrial scale is still limited due to high production costs. In addition, industrial PHAs recovery needs the use of large volumes of organic solvent like chloroform, which is not convenient for environmental safety (Byrom, 1994). Bosco and Chiampo (2010) reported four ways to reduce these costs including new cheap substrates, new fermentative strategies, new recovery and purification steps, and new microorganisms for accumulation of high PHA concentrations. Further Authors: C. Rondel C.E. Mercato-Romain V. Dossat-LĂ©tisse D. Lefebvre
Etamax: Driving with biogas from biowaste
Dr.-Ing. Ursula Schließmann
The utilization of vegetable biomass for the recovery of bioenergy – power, heat or fuels – plays an exceptional role as a sustainable alternative to conventional energy carriers. Biogas, a mix of energetically usable methane and carbon dioxide, is created during the anaerobic digestion of organic matter. In conjunction with the combined heat and power generation, biogas generation is considered as a technology with a high net energy yield and a high CO2 avoidance potential.
Microbial degradation of pesticides wastes in rustics devices type biobeds: The Biobacs
Carmen Ponce-Caballero
Derived from the system of biological beds proposed by Swedish researchers, called biobeds, and from the Bayer Crop Science system called PhytobacÂź, or the biobac, is a tank insulated from the subsoil and filled with a mixture of organic and mineral materials. Thanks to the developed biological processes in them, the biobeds can provide simple and attractive solutions for the confinement and treatment of pesticide wastes. A biobac can last for up to 8 to 10 years. Despite the increasing interest shown for these rustic processes of bioremediation, limited data is available on their efficiency and monitoring. Biobacs specifications may vary with environmental conditions, waste volume and composition and pesticide concentration. The cost and availability of “carrier materials” and organic substrates used to support microbial activity must also be considered (biomixes). All these aspects need to be considered when improving biobeds efficiency. Further Author: J.C. Fournier - UMR Microbiologie et GĂ©ochimie des sols
Impact assessment of home-composting practices on the quantity of collected waste
Annie Resse, Suzelle Barrington, Anne Trémier
Society is reconsidering composting, this ancient technology, for the treatment and recycling of municipal organic wastes. Municipalities are now encouraging the use of home composting when very little is known about the environmental impact of this practice as compared to other more conventional means. Furthermore, there is a need to establish a standard method to evaluate the impact of such a practice, when the diversified tools presently used produce data which cannot be compared. Within the European LIFE project Miniwaste, a study was conducted to establish a standard method to evaluate the mass and composition of the treated biowaste.
Production of lipases by solid state fermentation using vegetable oil - refining wastes
Teresa Gea, Raquel Barrena, Dr. Antoni SĂĄnchez
SSF holds tremendous potential for the production of enzymes when compared to stirred/submerged fermentation, due to its ability to use various substrates including solid waste. Different studies of lipase production have been carried out using few grams of substrate, mesophilic temperatures and known microorganisms (Godoy et al., 2009). The main objective of the current study was to develop a scalable SSF process for lipase production simulating real adiabatic conditions in full-scale processes and evaluate the use of fermented solids as biocatalysts.
Agricultural and industrial wastes co-digestion: Feedstock study and mass balance evaluation
Dr. Maxime Rouez, Jean-Luc Martel
2006 and 2011 French regulations regarding biogas valorisation through feed-in tariffs gave a recent boost to the development of anaerobic digestion activities in France: electricity produced from biogas is currently purchased between 112 and 200€/MWhe (in function of installed electrical power) against slightly more than 50€ before 2006. As a consequence, total installed electrical power from agricultural and industrial wastes co-digestion (<600kWe) had raised from less than 1MWe before 2006 to more than 5MWe in 2011 (Ademe, 2011). Further Authors: D. Tristant & B. De Franssu - AGROPARISTECH J.L. Martel & J.F. Yapo - CIRSEE SUEZ ENVIRONNEMENT G. Villemin & A. Lepine - SITA
Carbo-pro: A simulation model to manage soil organic matter through compost applications
C. Lhoutellier, Sabine Houot
The decline in soil organic C (SOC) content leads to reduced fertility and biological activity and reversely to greater susceptibility of soil to erosion. The loss of SOC has been identified as a major threat towards the soil resource. In addition, soils account for one of the largest terrestrial C reservoirs and small but consistent increases in SOC stocks could mitigate climate change effects by storing atmospheric CO2-C in soil organic matter. Annual application of exogenous organic matter (EOM) to cultivated land may lead to long continued accumulation of SOC. Further Authors: C. Peltre, J. Doublet, R. Biquillon, A. Pereira, M. Agenis-Nevers
Successful pilot project - compostable ECOVIOÂź bio-waste bags for separate organic waste collection
Dr. Thomas Grommes, Dipl. Ing. Georg Kosak, Dr. Carsten Sinkel
BASF, Veolia Environmental Services, GML Abfallwirtschaftsgesellschaft, and the waste management service of the district of Bad DĂŒrkheim, Germany conducted a three-month pilot project to ascertain whether ecovioÂź FS organic waste bags are suitable for residents’ everyday use for organic waste collection. Furthermore the behavior of the bags was examined on an industrial scale in the composting plant GrĂŒnstadt - operated by the plant manager Veolia on behalf of the owner GML. Further Author: F. Schwarz - Veolia Environmental Services
ECN-QAS -European approach for quality assurance of compost and digestate
Dr. Stefanie Siebert
This presentation presents the concept of the European quality assurance scheme for organic resources in respect to quality criteria for compost and digestate.
Correlation between phytotocixity and total and bioavailable heavy metals of composts
Maria Elisabete F. Silva, O. C. Nunes
Composting is one of the methods mostly used for organic solid wastes recycling. The compost is mainly used as a soil conditioner due to its carbon and nitrogen content. Although such applications are beneficial to soil, concern about possible environmental hazards, like odor, water pollution, veterinary hazards, and contamination by heavy metals have to be considered. The main limiting factor, in order to use compost as soil amendment, is the total concentration of heavy metals. Therefore, it is important to understand the heavy metals fractionation and their bioavailability to the soil–plant system, which may be correlated with the composts phytotoxicity. Further Authors: A.C. Cunha-Queda J.F.C. Carneiro - Departamento de Ambiente L. Teixeira de Lemos - Departamento de Ambiente E.P.C da Silva - Departamento de Ambiente I.P.L. Brás - Departamento de Ambiente
Evaluation of standards and procedures to regulate production and quality of municipal compost in the Philippines.
PD Dr.-Ing. Konrad Soyez, Engr. Jouke Boorsma, Dr. Johannes Paul
In emerging economies were municipal solid waste typically consists of a high proportion of organic residues which amounts up to 60% mass or more composting is a favorable technology to transfer that part of waste into a marketable product for agriculture or gardening to improve soil fertility especially in nutrient deficient and/or devastated areas through its humus and mineral content. However, application potentials including marketing opportunities depend on high quality of the produced composts which term refers to valuable criteria such as organic matter content or plant nutrients, as well as precautionary environmental criteria such as hygienic aspects and the content of potentially toxic substances.
Supply of methods and data for municipalities wishing to set collective composting projects
Celine Sollier, Jean-Claude Benoist, Amaury de Guardia, Anne Trémier, Annie Resse
Municipalities wishing to develop collective composting i.e. at the bottom of collective buildings need methods and data to implement and evaluate such operations. These methods and data are for instance the production of organic waste (o.w.) in collective home per inhabitant and per year and the amounts of o.w. really diverted from the usual waste collection following the implementation of a collective composting operation. This paper aimed to propose such methods. These were tested at the territory of Rennes MĂ©tropole. Further Authors: C. Le Coz - IRSTEA, Rennes Cedex E. Le Saos - IRSTEA, Rennes Cedex J.P. Blanquart - IRSTEA, Rennes Cedex
Suitability of composts for an acid-loving plant: highbush blueberry
Dr. Dan M. Sullivan
Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is adapted to soils with high organic matter and pH of 4.5-5.5. Coniferous sawdust is the blueberry industry standard soil amendment and mulch in the Pacific Northwest, USA. However, sawdust prices are increasing, and its availability is becoming limited. Therefore, many blueberry producers are interested in compost as an alternative to sawdust, which might also reduce the need for nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Our objectives were to: (i) estimate elemental S (So) rate needed to acidify compost to target pH for blueberry, and (ii) evaluate diverse composts vs. sawdust as soil amendments in plant growth trials under low and adequate N fertilization regimes. Further Authors: J.S. Owen Jr. - Oregon State University, Corvallis B.C. Strik - Oregon State University, Corvallis D.R. Bryla - Oregon State University, Corvallis R.C. Costello - Oregon State University, Corvallis
Effect of composted sewage sludge on heavy metal Content of the soil and plants
Attila TomĂłcsik, Marianna MakĂĄdi, V. Orosz, Tibor Aranyos, J. MĂ©szĂĄros
A good way for utilizing municipal sewage sludge is its use on agriculture lands after composting. The fate of sewagesludge is unsolved, its large quantity is cumulated on the territories of sewage cleaning plants. We can solve seriousenvironmental problems with sewage sludge treatment, however there are some risks, since sewage sludge may containheavy metals in high rate.In the NyĂ­rsĂ©g region of Hungary there are mostly acidic sandy soils with low humus content. Because of the decreasingquantity of livestock manure, the subsequent delivery of organic matter into the soils could be problematic. Further Author: Gy. FĂŒleky - Szent IstvĂĄn University
Evolution of microbial populations, humic and fulvic acids on compost from Grape pomace
MSc Ana B. Torres
Pisco is a main distillate spirit in Chile and Peru. This product is obtained from the muscatel grape fermentation and itproduction reach from 30- 50 millions of liters by year, this industry generates a large amount of residues reachingabout 12-15 ton/ha, especially in summer and fall. Composting process results a good option to correct disposal ofwastes and many microbiological changes provides to final compost, properties to maintain and improve the soil qualityin terms of physical, chemical and biological properties. Further Authors: R. Ortega Blu - Universidad TĂ©cnica Federico Santa MarĂ­a M.M MartĂ­nez Salgado - Institute of Crop Science
Testing N and P availability from organic fertilizer products for approval purposes
MSc Tiina T. Tontti, Petri Kapuinen
Organic fertilizer products are a potential source of nutrients that can enhance growth of agricultural crops. Interest inthese products has increased due to the recent variation in costs of inorganic fertilizers and values of crop products. TheFinnish fertilizer product legislation requires that for marketing an organic fertilizer product the applicant must explaine.g. the used raw materials and their origin, the chemical and biological composition and physical characteristics.Furthermore, the applicant has to define the recommended application rates and the instructions for safe use of a neworganic fertilizer product.
Bio-hydrogen and methane production using dark fermentation
Maren Stommel, Ruth Brunstermann, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Renatus Widmann
Hydrogen is regarded as an energy source of the future. Currently hydrogen is predominantly produced by electrically driven electrolysis of water or by steam reforming. Both methods base on fossil fuels. These days the production of hydrogen by biological processes has become a matter of global interest and attention (Levin et al., 2004). Further Author: A. Schorn - University of Duisburg-Essen
Composting for increasing the fertilizer value of chicken manure: Effects of feedstock on P availability
Dr. ir. Bart Vandecasteele, Koen Willekens, Stefaan De Neve
Soils in Northern Belgium under agricultural use are low in organic carbon. Application of compost as a source ofstabilized organic matter is one strategy for maintaining or increasing the soil organic carbon content. Compost for thispurpose can be prepared at the farm level, giving the farmer the opportunity to recycle organic wastes. To meetfertilization standards to reduce nutrient leaching, especially the total P content of the composts limits the applicationrate. Use of poultry manure as organic fertilizer is restricted due to its low N/P ratio. For some types of manure, addingwoody material or straw allows to process the manure to a high quality compost. Including chicken manure in compostmay result in a stable product rich in nutrients and organic matter, with a higher C/P value. Further Authors: B. Reubens - Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research A. Beeckman - Inagro L. Delanote - Inagro
Life cycle assesement of pig slurry Treatment technologies
Marieke Ten Hoeve, Sander Bruun, Nicholaus John Hutchings, Torben René Jensen
Animal manure is one of the major agricultural wastes and its management is associated with negative impacts onglobal warming, acidification and eutrophication of natural ecosystems.These impacts are accentuated because some areas in Europe receive excessive amounts of animal manure. These socalledhotspot areas are characterized by high livestock densities and insufficient land for manure utilisation, resultingin phosphorus and nitrogen surpluses in these areas, with associated risks for losses to the environment. In other areas, the nutrients from manure are insufficient to maintain production, leading to a need to apply mineral fertilizers. Further Author: L. S. Jensen - University of Copenhagen
Innovative revamping MBT plants - A portuguese case study
Rosa Vazquez
Biodegradable municipal waste technologies in Mechanical and Biological Treatment Plants (MBT plants) are gainingmomentum throughout Europe and the world. These waste management technologies consist of several mechanical andbiological stages that progressively recover and stabilise the biodegradable matter under controlled anaerobic and/oraerobic conditions.At the same time, Materials Recovery Facilities (MRF plants) are being built in order to sort by different material thepackaging waste at-source collected. Further Authors: A. Cabeças - Empresa Geral do Fomento R. Batista - Resiestrela
Composted and vermicomposted cattle manure effect nutrient supply and lettuce growth
P.R. Warman
The nutrient supplying potential of vermicompost and compost of the same substrates was tested using lettuce in agreenhouse experiment. Fifteen treatments were compared. Four treatments were vermicompost and compost preparedfrom beef manure and dairy manure. Further Author: A.M. Hammermeister - Nova Scotia Agricultural College
Combinaison of three new microbial indicators to Monitor composting bioaerosols
Nathalie WĂ©ry, HĂ©lĂšne Bacheley, Jean-Philippe Steyer, Godon Jean Jacques
Bioaerosols generated at composting plants are released during processes that involve vigorous movement of material:fresh waste delivery, shredding, compost pile turning, screening. Bioaerosols are a cause of concern because of theirpotential impact on the health of workers and residents living close to such facilities. The main goal of this research wasto look for phylotypes which would represent a microbial signature of compost aerosols. Further Author: Le Goff O. - INRA
Anaerobic Digestion of biogenic residues in Germany
Dipl.-Ing. David Wilken
The anaerobic digestion (AD) has reached a very high level in Germany. By the end of 2011 nearly 7.000 AD plantshad an installed capacity of more than 2.700 Megawatt supplying 5 million households with electricity. Besides ofgenerating electricity the energy carrier biogas is able to supply households, industries, stables, swimming pools andother buildings with heat and even substitute natural gas and fuel when it is upgraded to biomethane. But also thematerial benefit from biomass, using the digestate as valuable nutrient-rich fertiliser plays an important role, especiallyregarding the shortage of phosphor. The production of biogas combines the energetic and the material use of biomass.The cycle of nutrients is closed, saving fossil and mineral resources and green-house-gas emissions, especially with thetreatment of organic residues and manure.The above mentioned 7.000 AD plants run mainly on the base of energy crops and manure.
Large scale composting model
Gérald Debenest, Anne Tremier, Michel Quintard, Jean-Luc Martel
One way to treat the organic wastes accordingly to the environmental policies is to develop biological treatment likecomposting. Nevertheless, this development largely relies on the quality of the final product and as a consequence onthe quality of the biological activity during the treatment. Favourable conditions (oxygen concentration, temperatureand moisture content) in the waste bed largely contribute to the establishment of a good aerobic biological activity andguarantee the organic matter stabilisation with limitation and control of odorous and greenhouse effect gaseousemissions. Further Authors: G.Duchalais - Terralys, Gargenville F. Henon - Université de Toulouse
Predicting the biochemical methane potential of organic waste by near infrared spectroscopy
M. Poitrenaud
The biochemical methane potential (BMP) evaluates the ultimate amount of methane produced by any given waste orbiomass under anaerobic conditions. This value is currently one of the most important parameter for the design andcontrol of anaerobic digestion plants and more specifically in co-digestion plants where a broad rang of substrates canbe treated. Further Authors: J. Doublet, C. Laroche, A. Ponthieux, J. Cacho-Rivero - Veolia Environnement Research and Innovation
Comparison of Batch and semi-comtinuous acidogenic process of Food waste anaerobic digestion
J. W. C. Wong, Dr Ammaiyappan Selvam
During food waste anaerobic digestion (AD), higher rate of acidogenesis than the methanogenesis affects the stability of the reactor in a single-phase AD system. To decouple the acidogenesis from methanogenesis with the purpose to optimize each reactor separately, in recent years, a two-phase AD is proposed, especially to treat high solid food waste. In the two-phase system, leach bed reactor (LBR) as the first phase, i.e. hydrolysis-acidogenesis, of the two-phase system has gained more attention due to its operational simplicity and efficiency for organic wastes with high solids content. Further Authors: S.Y. Xu - Hong Kong Baptist University
Carbon sequestration mechanism by using charcoal (biochar) and compost in Farmland
Shuji Yoshizawa, Satoko Tanaka
For global warming prevention, sequestration mechanism of carbon in soil used with charcoal (biochar) was studied, and analysis method of charcoal carbon amount in the soil was established quantitatively
Emissions of VOCs during municipal biowaste and sludge composting in Pilot scale reactors
Patricia Zan Alvarez, M. Chevallier, HĂ©lĂšne Bacheley
During the composting process, organic matter is mainly transformed by aerobic reactions into a stabilized product.This process involves the production and release of some odorous gases to the atmosphere. There are far fewerpublished data on VOCs and odours emissions of composting process than emissions of others gases, such as NH3, N2Oor CH4 (Mallard (2005)). This article aims to evaluate VOCs and odours emissions during biowaste and sludgecomposting and to compare these emissions regarding different aeration conditions. Further Authors: P. Lavaud - Veolia Environnement Recherche & Innovation A. Covez - Veolia Environnement Recherche & Innovation R. Lecarpentier - Veolia Environnement Recherche & Innovation M. Jolly - Veolia Environnement Recherche & Innovation
Nitrogen dynamic during Aerobic Treatment of organic wastes
Zeng Yang, Patrick Dabert, Sophie Le Roux, Amaury de Guardia
Present work investigated the nitrogen dynamic and the evolution of ammonia oxidizers during aerobic treatment ofthree kinds of organic wastes including municipal solid wastes, mixture of municipal solid wastes and waste activatedsludge, digested sludge. Further Authors: Flavia Junqueira Macedo - Irstea Christine Ziebal - Irstea Jonas Mognol - Irstea
On-site assessment of methods to measure gaseous emissions from biological Treatment of waste
Isabelle Zdanevitch, Pascal Mallard, Olivier Bour
Landfilling of biodegradable waste must decrease to fulfil the Council Directive 99/31/EC on landfills, in order toreduce the emission of gaseous and liquid pollutants during the landfill lifetime. Therefore, pre-treatment of the organicfraction of municipal waste prior to landfilling is being developed in several countries. In France, the organic fraction iseither separated and treated through selective collection of biowaste, or through mechanical sorting in the plantfollowed by biological treatments (anaerobic or aerobic), the refuses only being landfilled. Or the mixed waste isstabilized by an aerobic process before landfilling. Further Author: N. Auvinet
Revision of waste Treatment industries IED/BREF document - what are implications for MBT - Operators?
Dr.-Ing. Matthias KĂŒhle-Weidemeier, Dr. Joachim Clemens
Indications on the approach for composting and digestion plants in Germany will be given.The European BREF documents (Best Available Technique Reference Documents) describe the Best AvailableTechniques (BAT) for low-emission operation of industrial plants which also include waste treatment plants. Thedefinition of the best available techniques in terms of the BREFs is similar to that of the German term state of the art.
Effect of operating Parameters during compost stability Respiration activity tests
D.P. Komilis
The goal of this work was to assess the effect of various operating parameters (sample size, temperature, air flowrate)during static and dynamic respiration activity tests that are used to assess compost stability. The material used in allexperiments was a MSW compost derived from a commingled MSW composting facility in Athens, Greece. Thefacility receives raw commingled MSW that go through several pre-processing steps, an active in-vessel compostingstep of 18 hr and 6 weeks and a final curing period of 5-6 weeks. Further Authors: D. Kanellos - Democritus University of Thrace C. Kletsas - Democritus University of Thrace
The civilation biorefinery - inventories for efficient utilization of local waste and waste water based bioressources for material and energy generation
PD Dr. Ing. habil. Ina Körner, Saskia Hertel, Helmut Adwiraah
Since fossil resources are limited, more and more focus is laid on the utilisation of organics for energygeneration. But these bioresources are also valuable for food, feed and material production. Biorefineries are complexand integrated systems of processes and facilities with the purpose to transform primary bioresources into a multitude ofenergetic and material products. They are expected to be the step forward into a bio-based economy. Civilisationbiorefineries expand this goal by the efficient utilization of local resources which are generated as secondary or tertiarybioresources in form of waste, waste water or residues e.g. of landscape care.
Carbon flows of waste biomasses applicable to agricultural soils in Finland
M.Sc. Juuso Joona, Laura Alakukku
Agriculture, industry and municipalities produce waste biomasses that are not adequately exploited. Carbon (C) andnutrients in the waste biomasses are usually linked and although nutrient flows have been assessed from the global scaleto the farm level, C flows have been studied to a lesser degree. Recycling C from waste biomasses to crop productionhas the potential not only to improve soil productivity, but most importantly also to mitigate climate change. The Csequestration (CS) potential depends not only on the quantity of C but also on the decomposition rate of the Ccompounds in soil.Agrifood waste biomasses have substantial potential for recycling C to crop production based on their volumes, locationand safety. In addition, a large proportion of waste biomass from the paper and pulp industry is exploitable inagricultural soils as organic amendments. Further Authors: H. Kahiluoto - MTT Agrifood Research Finland M. Kuisma - MTT Agrifood Research Finland
Potential of producing bio-Ethanol for use as E10 in Transportation sector from low cost lignocellulosic green waste in Mauritius
Pratima Jeetah, Prof.Dr. Romeela Mohee
Bio-ethanol production from biomass is attracting attention all over the world in view of its use as an alternative source topetrol or in blends with petrol for clean energy technology in the transportation sector. The commercial feasibility of bioethanolproduction from locally available renewable lignocellulosic resources depends both on its ease of availability and itslow cost. Moreover, with the intensive urge in having a clean environment for the present and future generation, theGovernment of Mauritius has adopted a strategy of Building a Green future for Mauritius through the Maurice Ile Durable(MID) concept through a shift to renewable sources of energy from imported fossil fuels.
Assessing the temperature - contact time criteria and turning effect in compost sanitation
Pulat Isobaev, Dr. Daryl McCartney, Norman Neumann
For a finished compost to be safe for market, it should have reached the necessary sanitation conditions. This means thatthe number of known pathogenic microorganisms in compost should comply with the levels specified in the nationaland provincial guidelines. North American guidelines, such as those published by the USEPA in the United States andthe CCME in Canada, specify the levels of some pathogenic and indicator microorganisms as <3 MPN·4 g-1 dry solidsfor Salmonella, <1000 MPN·g-1 dry solids for fecal coliforms and < 1 PFU·4 g-1 dry solids for enteric viruses. Further Author: K. Wichuk - Civil & Environmental Engineering
Study of thermal conductivity in organic solid wastes before composting
Joachim Huet, Celine Druilhe, Gérald Debenest
In France, like in all developed countries, the amount of solid wastes generated per year has increasedcontinuously since the 1960’s. To hold back this trend, waste policies have been set up, as illustrated by currentEU waste policy and its five main priorities: prevention, reuse, recycling, recovery and disposal. Composting canbe defined as the process whereby aerobic micro-organisms convert organic substrates into compost: a hygienic,biostable product that can be beneficially applied to land (Haug, 1993; Mohee & Mudhoo, 2005).
Greenhouse gas Monitoring for optimization of process Efficiency of Biogas plants
Dipl.-Ing. Dr. Marion Huber-Humer, Marlies Hrad, Dr. Martin Piringer
Within the research project "KLIMONEFF" modern optical remote sensing (ORS) technology is applied as aninnovative approach to detect methane losses of diverse parts of biogas facilities in order to reduce their greenhouse gas(GHG) losses and optimize their energy efficiency. An Austrian biogas plant has, therefore, been selected to quantifythe GHG emissions of the entire plant but also methane losses (methane loads) from various plant components for therepresentative period of one year.
The swedish voluntary Agreement for control of methane emissions from Biogas plants
M.Sc. Magnus A. Holmgren, Anneli Petersson
Swedish Waste Management Association has set up a voluntary agreement for control of methane emissions frombiogas and upgrading plants, starting in the year 2007. There were a number of reasons to start this system, mainlyenvironmental (GHG emissions and odour), economical and safety issues, but as important was to show that the biogasindustry acts responsibly and is pro-active regarding these issues, especially in relation to authorities. The voluntaryagreement system has been reviewed once and is currently set up in two parts; internal routines for leak detection andemission measurements performed every 3 years by an external consultant. Further Authors: H. Hellström - SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden A. Blom - Swedish Waste Management Association
Determination of discarded Food and proposals for a minimization of Food wastage in Germany
Dipl.-Ing. Gerold Hafner, Jakob Barabosz, o. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Kranert
The research project focussed on two topics. First, food waste along the value-added chain for food has been accountedand second, recommendations to contribute to a reduction in food waste were worked out.The determination of the amount of discarded food in Germany revealed a total amount of 10.970.000 tons food peryear.By projecting and transferring the result from previous research the following fluctuation margin of the amounts of foodwaste from the food industry emerges: 210,000 – 4,580,000 tons per year.
Re-Evaluation the Parameters in composting and anaerobic digestion
Kari HĂ€nninen
The basic theories of composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) are supposedly well known.However, constant odour problems in the compost after tunnel composting and low energy yields in the dark fermentationprocess may be due to an inadequate understanding of some of their basic parameters. In biochemistry it is taken as readthat an increase in temperature means an increase in biochemical activity as well. Composting, however, is supposed to bean exception: when the process temperature exceeds 60oC, the activity of the micro-organisms is claimed to be inhibited.Estimations of the performance capacity of the microbes carrying out these processes focus on the consumption of theatmospheric oxygen.
Bio-based polymer products - oppertunities and limitations from a disposal and recyclling perspective
Dipl.-Ing. Gunnar HĂ€drich, Prof. Dr. Ing. habil. Werner Bidlingmaier, C. Werner, Roman Rinberg
In the context of the discussion about limited fossil resources and climate change products made of bio-based polymershave been developed to an alternative to conventional polymers. Nowadays, products from bio-based polymers are usedin several different fields, e. g. in form of films, bags or bottles as packaging materials, for catering products, everydayobjects/commodities, compostable garbage bags as well as mulch films for agriculture application.In Germany, the recycling and disposal of products from bio-based polymers follows the traditional ways together withall the other waste.
Compost pile Monitoring with GC-MS, E-Nose and olfactometry: comparison of different approaches
A.-C. Romain, M.C. Gutiérrez, A. F. Chica
In many cases, odours emitted by municipal solid waste (MSW) plants are bothersome for the surrounding population.However, regulation and controls are difficult to determine. The complexity of emissions and the subjectivity of odourperception can partially explain this difficulty. Another concern is that the various techniques to measure such odoursare not standardised. This paper compares complementary approaches to monitor odours. The odour source selected forthis study is green waste compost at different maturity stages.
Effect of ammoniacal Nitrogen on methanogenic metabolic pathways during MSW anaerobic digestion
Théodore Bouchez, Dr Laurent Mazéas, J. Grossin-Debattista, H. Budzinski
Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents an important renewable energy sources and the sustainable management of organic wastes is a major environmental and economic issue. The anaerobic digestion of MSW, which occurs inlandfills and methanization treatment plants, is a very complex process. The final step of the waste degradation, i.e.methanogenesis, which produces methane, leads to the production of a biogas that could be transformed into heat,electric power and fuel gas (renewable energy). In order to produce more efficiently this renewable energy and toenhance the degradation of the organic fraction of waste, bioreactors landfill and methanization treatment plants are twopromising management strategies. Further Authors: J. Epissard - Irstea M. Lemunier - Suez Environnement
The myth of waste avoidance-waste does not cause waste
Dr. Alfons Grooterhorst
In the discussion about sustainability many people consider waste avoidance as a key measure how material flows ofhumans could be omitted. This is based on the conviction that waste avoidance protects the environment and permitssustainable acting. However, waste management data show that the gross domestic waste amounts, i.e. the total ofrecycled, treated and disposed household waste, bulky waste, street sweeping waste, green waste and market waste in Germany remains unchanged at a level of 500 to 600 kilograms per capita and year (kg/cap*a) during the last decades (similar also in other industrialized countries).
Long-term persistence of aminocyclopyra-chlor and clopyralid during the composting of Yard trimmings
F C Michel
Certain pyridine carboxylic acid herbicides, including clopyralid, aminocyclopyrachlor and, aminopyralid that have recently been introduced, have been found to be recalcitrant in soil and composts. These herbicides are generally usedfor broadleaf weed control in pastures, lawns and natural areas. Certain types of plants, including tomatoes and beansare very sensitive to residues of these compounds even at very low concentrations. Further Authors: Y M Li - The Ohio State University S K Grewal - The Ohio State University
Biodegradation of bioplastics and naural fibers during, anaerobic Digestion and in soil
Eddie GĂłmez, F C Michel
Plastics are increasingly causing pollution problems in natural environments due to their recalcitrant nature. Variousnew materials have recently begun to be marketed that claim to biodegrade or compost during waste treatment.
Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting in practice
Evgheni Ermolaev, Mikael Pell, Cecilia Sundberg, Jönsson Håkan
Home composting is a wide-spread treatment option for biological household waste in Sweden. According to theSwedish Waste Management association (Avfall Sverige, 2011), 60 000 tonnes of compostable waste were homecomposted in 2010. This represents a rather large portion (10 %) of all the household waste treated biologically.Nevertheless, research on process efficiency and environmental effects of home composting is scarce. The objective ofthis study was to investigate the influence of different process parameters on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions(methane, CH4, nitrous oxide, N2O and carbon dioxide, CO2) from home composting under real householdmanagement. Further Authors: Alexander Johansson - Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Björn Kempe - Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Composting of pic Faeces with corn stalks in China - Microbiological examinations; hygienic aspects and sanitation capacity
René A. Eling, Dr. Werner Philipp, Ludwig E. Hoelzle
With the increasing demand for meat (pork) the pig production in China increased over the last years,especially in the Northern East of China around mega cities like Beijing. Increasing pig production in large scale pigfarms head to enormous amounts of organic wastes (such as pig faeces), over-fertilization of agricultural areas andenvironmental pollution in regions with high pig production and density. Further Authors: Wang M., He C., Ling Y., Liu Y - China Agricultural University
City to soil: A cost efective System for collecting and composting domestic organics
Gerry Gillespie, Dr Sara Beavis
The diversion of organic waste to landfill is an increasingly important environmental and planning issue for municipalmanagers around the world. The impetus to implement such processes in local populations varies from country tocountry.Directly involving the community in the recycling of organic material has proven to be very successful in achievingclean input material for composting into high-quality products and for their return to agriculture.
Statistical Analysis of residential Food waste capture rates in Italy at municipal and regional level
Michele Giavini, Christian Garaffa, Dr. Massimo Centemero, G. Ghiringhelli
This paper analyses capture rates of source separated food waste, focusing on data investigated from official publicwaste reports of Italian Local Authorities and Waste Monitoring Agencies, which show details at the level of theindividual municipalities.Source separation of residential food waste, performed with the typical Italian scheme (small kitchen buckets withcompostable bags) has spread throughout the country at a steady pace since 1998; currently, almost half of themunicipalities in Italy have implemented this kind of collection of residential food waste.
Modelling the Dynamics of organic pollutants in soil following the spreading of sludge-green waste composts
C.S. Haudin, G. Lashermes, Sabine Houot, Dr P. Garnier
The aim of this work was to evaluate our COP-Soil model derived from the COP-Compost model (Zhang et al., 2012;Lashermes et al., submitted), using experimental data that described the evolution of carbon from organic matter (OM)and organic pollutants (OPs) after the incorporation of composts into soil. We used the results of experiments wheresludge-green waste composts, containing residues of 14 C-fluoranthene, 14C-nonylphenol, 14C-glyphosate and 14C-linearalkylbenzene sulfonate from composting treatment (Lashermes et al., 2012a), were mixed to soil and incubated for 140 days under controlled aerated conditions (Haudin et al., in preparation). Further Author: C.N. Geng - INRA, France
Use of a UV-visible spectroscopy method to determine the organic matter concentration in andisol soils ans soils treated with organic amendments of Chile
Rodrigo Ortega
The central role of soil organic matter in maintaining soil functions and plant productivity in agroecosystems has long beenrecognized. Soil organic matter (SOM) content is considered a soil quality indicator, whose advantage is to be simple andsensitive to measure environmental stresses and, consequently, may provide a rapid and accurate assessment of changes insoil. Further Authors: A. GarcĂ­a, R. Ortega - Centro Avanzado TecnologĂ­a para la Agricultura- Universidad TĂ©cnica Federico Santa MarĂ­a. M. MartĂ­nez
The Advantages of compostable bags for Food waste collection
Christian Garaffa
After an introduction about biowaste legislation in Europe, this paper explains the benefits of using compostable bags,in this case Mater-BiÂź bags, for residential food waste collection schemes. Mater-BiÂź identifies a family of compostableresins produced by Novamont that contain native starch and other raw materials of agricultural origin.
Provivion of a web tool on bio-waste prevention for local authorities in Europe
Laurence Galon, Anne Trémier
The European community cannot address the issue of bio-waste solely in terms of collection and waste management, assuch activities generate costs. Today, waste prevention in Europe must involve waste reduction and prevention at a locallevel, targeting all producers of bio-waste, not only consumers and households, and promoting the use of a number ofwaste reduction practices including composting, mulching, grinding, use of slow-growing plant species, using bio-wasteas animal feed, reducing food wastage and the use of ramial wood chips. Further Authors: N. Gaillard, N. Euzen, A. Lopes, B. Chaves, J.-J. Dohogne, P. Micheaux Naudet, O., De Clercq, M. Vanecek, J. Cerny
Evaluation of compost maturity by hot water extracted (HWP) carbon
Dr. György FĂŒleky
The water soluble carbon has been proposed by several researchers as a parameter to evaluate compost evolutionbecause its concentration rapidly decreased with the process. The authors established the 0.5 % value as a maximumcontent of water soluble carbon above which compost could be considered mature.The aim of this work was evaluate the hot water soluble carbon extracted with Hot Water Percolation (HWP) as anindicator of compost maturity stages.The composting windrow was built from green wastes on 10. October and destroyed on 21 November.
Experimental Analysis of the Aerobic stabilization Efficiency of an existing MBT plant
Prof-Ing. Francesco Di Maria, Dr. Moreno Marionni, F. Castellani
The management of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) has been strongly improved by the last Waste FrameworkDirective 2008/98/CE, by increasing the amount of waste materials that have to be reutilized, prepared for reutilizationand/or recycled. In any case, even if these goals will be achieved, a large amount of residual MSW from the SourceSegregated collection (SS) will need to be properly managed.Incineration is a quite suitable way for managing these materials even if it is costly and not homogenously spread in thedifferent European Areas. Further Authors: A. Sordi - LAR - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale C. Micale - LAR - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale G. Cirulli - LAR - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale
Aerobic pre-treatment of mechanical sceened MSW: Effects on landfill anaerobic biodegradation
Prof-Ing. Francesco Di Maria, F. Castellani, F. Valentini
The Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) resulting from Source Segregated (SS) collection follows different fate dependingon the waste management system implemented in the several European States. The EU27 mean data shows that about38% w/w of the 255.000.000 tonnes per year of waste produced is directly disposed in landfill without anypretreatment. This makes landfill one of the most important sources of anthropogenic GHG emission, contributing formany EU states from 3 to 13%. Further Authors : A. Sordi - LAR - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale C. Micale - LAR - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale G. Cirulli - LAR - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale A. Canovai - GESENU spa
Compostability of Plastics and packaging: Standards on biodegradability and ecotoxicity
Dr. Francesco Degli-Innocenti
The first attempts to define a standard on requirements for plastics and packaging suitable to composting date back tothe middle of 90s, when ORCA (Organic Reclamation and Composting Association) in Europe and ISR-ASTM(Institute for Standard Research of ASTM) in the USA, started fundamental preliminary works. Official standardspecifications were developed shortly after. ASTM D6400 (Standard Specification for Compostable Plastics) wasoriginally published in 1999 and the European harmonised standard EN 13432 (Packaging. Requirements for packagingrecoverable through composting and biodegradation. Test scheme and evaluation criteria for the final acceptance ofpackaging) the year after.
Compost Quality assesment and eow processus application to 4 types of compost
Jean-Luc Martel
Analysis of compost is of major importance because it directly impacts on its final destination. According to the level ofcontamination and the national standards in each country, compost can be used on all crops including edible vegetables,on extended agriculture, on restoration lands, as landfill cover or simply landfilled if too contaminated. The End ofWaste process introduced by the Waste Framework Directive 2008/98 and currently managed by the Joint ResearchCentre in Seville is moving a step forward. Further Author: Y. Decelle - SITA Belgium
Sewage sludge gasificaion. Dolomite Performance under different operating conditions
Dr. Juan M. de Andrés, Adolfo Narros
Gasification is a technology that can replace traditional management alternatives used up to date to deal with this waste(landfilling, composting and incineration) and which fulfils the social, environmental and legislative requirements. The main products of sewage sludge gasification are permanent gases (useful to generate energy or to be used as rawmaterial in chemical synthesis processes), liquids (tars) and char. One of the main problems to be solved in gasificationis tar production. Tars are organic impurities which can condense at relatively high temperatures making impossible touse the produced gases for most applications. Further Authors: E. Roche - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid M.E. Rodríguez - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
Brazilian's Beef cattle feedlot manure Management: A Country report
PhD Student Ciniro Costa Junior
Brazil has been the largest beef exporter in the world with almost 10% of its 40 million slaughters in 2010 coming fromfeedlots. The Brazilian beef feedlot industry has grown 60% in the last 8 years driven by increase in the external marketdemand for fed cattle. High concentration of manure is an inevitable by-product in feedlots that must be managed as aresource rather than waste in order to avoid environmental pollution. Thus, knowledge on manure management isnecessary for properly advices and estimates. However no inventory of beef cattle feedlot manure management isavailable for Brazil. Further Authors: T.Z. Albertini, R.S. Goulart, B.J. Feigl, C.E.P. Cerri, D.P.D. Lanna, M. Bernoux
Environmental burdens associated to different Technologies for the biological Treatment of OFMSW
Raquel Barrena, Adriana Artola
Waste management, a complex system involving at least waste collection and waste treatment, has been analyzed fromdifferent points of view. Obviously, the economics of waste management systems are mainly required by the authoritieswhile engineers also appreciate technical/engineering information on the system. However, in the last years, a numberof authors have also been studying waste management systems by focusing on their environmental impact (mainlyenergy and material burdens). This impact can be added as a new parameter in the decision matrix when evaluating thesuitability of different treatment technologies. Further Authors: J. ColĂłn, E. Cadena, M. Pognani, C. Maulini, A. SĂĄnchez, X. Font, A. Artola
Separate collection of biowaste itself in France around the compost + network
Thomas Colin, G. Boucherie, G. Pierre
In France, only 2.2 million inhabitants are concerned by door to door organic waste collection (ref 1). French policy hasnever sought to strongly encourage the recovery of organic waste. Unlike some countries, there is no bond of means inFrance but only bond of results as far as compliance with the quality of the produced compost is concerned. This generates questions from French policymakers about treatment options and the evolution of the mechanical biologicaltreatment sector over time. The current work of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) on « End of Waste » emphasizes alittle more this uncertainty at the French level.Given this situation, in 2006, a group of French local authorities involved in the separate collection of biowaste formeda network called the Compost+ Network, which became recently an association. Further Author: S. Lejal - Cap l’Orient AgglomĂ©ration
Leakage control of Biogas plants
Dr. Joachim Clemens, Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang Schreier
Anaerobic digestion has become a very important technology to treat organic waste and to generate renewable energy. During construction and operation leaks at biogas plants may occur and methane is emitted. Further Authors: S. Neitzel - Systemtechnik Weser-Ems S. Kohne - esders Ltd
Abiotic Parameters and microbial Counts as stability indicators during composting of organic waste
Christina Chroni, A. Kyriacou, Dr. Katia Lasaridi
The implementation of the EU Directives concerning the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (2008/1/EC) andthe water policy (2000/80/EC) have oriented the waste management operations at minimization via recycling andrecovery strategies. In the case of the industrial and agricultural waste, composting is often placed within the mostfeasible options. The performance of the composting process and the some important quality aspects of the end-product(the compost), mainly assessed by stability, are governed by both the composition - biological and elemental- of thewastes and the management strategies.
Effect of co-composting of straw and biochar on nutrient availability from animal slurry solids
Wibke Christel, Sander Bruun, Albarune Chowdhury
Development of intensive live stock farming in Europe has been restricted to a small number of regions. Thus, largeamounts of agricultural wastes accrue in these areas making them “hot spots” of nutrient surplus, scattered aroundEurope. Due to the risk of severe environmental consequences, governmental regulations increasingly limit the allowedapplication rates of manure on agricultural land. Further Authors: S. Bruun - University of Copenhagen L. S. Jensen - University of Copenhagen
Influence of aeration rate on composting gaseous emissions with pig slaughterhouse sludge
Vincent Blazy, Jean-Claude Benoist, Suzelle Barrington
This study investigated the influence of composting aeration rate on emission concentrations in terms of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, mercaptan, and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). The influence of the aeration on the gaseous emission was the first process conditions investigated. Further Authors: A. De-Guardia - Irstea D. Wolbert - Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes M. Lemasle - Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes M. Daumoin - Irstea
Import of biomass or using local biomass to reach the renewable energy objectives?
Ann Braekevelt
Biomass can be used in lots of different products, applications and industries. All European countries need biomass toreach the European goals for renewable energy. So does Belgium. In Belgium waste and energy policy is a competenceof the Regions. Belgium has three regions: Flanders, Brussels and Wallonia. More as 50 % of the renewable energy sources have to come from using solid biomass in order to reach the goal of 20% energy from renewable sources in 2020.
China Biogas potential and ist estimated contribution to climate Change mitigation
M. Sc. Christian Brauner, Prof. Dr. habil. Bernhard Raninger, Prof. Dr. Renjie Dong, Prof. Dr. Raffaella Villa
China comes first on the world list as to coal and nitrogen-fertilizer consumption, solid waste production and CO2 andCH4 emissions. At the same time, the country has to cope with one of the most rapid periods of urbanization in history.
Composting of separated animal slurry solid fraction: Effect of bulking Agent type and mixing-ratio on gaseous emissions
Albarune Chowdhury
There is increased interest in composting separated animal slurry solid fractions as a potential strategy to improvemanure management and recycling. Composting, however, may result in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The aim ofthe present study was to study the effect of solid fraction bulking agent type and mixing-ratio on gaseous emissions. Further Authors: A. de Neergaard - University of Copenhagen L.S. Jensen - University of Copenhagen
Integrated waste Management combining anaerobic and Aerobic Treatment: A case study
Dr. Maria A. Bustamante, August BonmatĂ­, Prof. Dr. Maria-Pilar Bernal, Jordi Palatsi, C. Paredes
The generation of wastes has undergone a notable increase due to some factors, such as the concentration of thepopulation in urban areas, the intensification and concentration of livestock production, and the rapid growth anddevelopment of the agroindustrial sector. The intensification of the livestock systems has resulted in a high density ofanimals in relatively small geographical areas, where large quantities of manure are produced. Intensive livestockproduction is associated to several detrimental environmental side effects, such as uncontrolled discharges to surfacewaters, leachate to groundwater (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus), contamination of soils (e.g. heavy metals) and gaseous andodour emissions to the atmosphere. Further Authors: F. Solé-Mauri - RosRoca M.P. Bernal - CEBAS-CSIC R. Moral - Miguel Hernåndez University
Composting used as a low cost method for pathogen Elimination in sewage sludge
Dr. D.Diana Cabañas-Vargas
Spreading sewage sludge from municipal wastewater (MWW) treatment on land is still a common practice indeveloping countries. However, it is well known that sewage sludge without special treatment contains various pollutants, which are (re)introduced into the environment by sludge landspreading and which might in turn have harmful effects to the environment and human health. Further Authors: E. De los RĂ­os Ibarra - Independent Researcher J. P. Mena - Salas, University Autonomous of Yucatan D.Y. Escalante - RĂ©ndiz, University Autonomous of Yucatan
Predicting urban soil sustainability: Impact OG organic matter on soil water transfer
Dr. Patrice Cannavo
The physical properties of urban soils often limit tree development. Urban soils are compacted; as a result, waterand air infiltration are reduced. The available soil volume for root colonisation is usually limited by theunderground infrastructure. Exogenous organic matter has been shown to have a positive impact on the physicalproperties of agricultural soils. In some urban situations, the wide-scale availability of organic matter and theneed for important soil restructuring have led to the application of large quantities of organic matter. Further Authors: V. Forget-Caubel - Agrocampus Ouest, Centre d’Angers, France C. Grosbellet - Union Nationale des Entreprises du Paysage, Paris L. Vidal-Beaudet - Agrocampus Ouest, Centre d’Angers, France V. Forget-Caubel - Agrocampus Ouest, Centre d’Angers, France
Optimization of cow manure and sewage sludge CO-Digestion using disintegration technologies
RaĂșl Cano, Maria Fdz-Polanco, Ana PĂ©rez, Lynne Bouchy
The environmental problem of manure management and the decreasing availability of land for its disposal are forcingthe development of new waste management strategies. Anaerobic digestion is an attractive treatment for cow manure,since it produces biogas, and a stabilized digestate that can be reused as organic fertilizer (Neves et al., 2008). Codigestion of animal manure with sewage sludge offers economic and environmental benefits due to cost-sharing byprocessing multiple waste streams with complementary characteristics in order to improve the methane production andprevent inhibition problems due to ammonia toxicity. Further Author: A. Nielfa - University of Valladolid
Bioplastics and compost: The Italian approach
Dr. Massimo Centemero, Werner Zanardi, Dr. Marco Ricci, Mario Malinconico
Recent times have seen the introduction to the market of products and packaging made of bioplastic materials, such as mulch films, catering products, packaging and waste bags. Bioplastics are a family of materials that are bio-based,biodegradable, or both (conventional plastics do not have these qualities).
Modelling the Impact of urban compost application on Nitrogen Dynamics in a cultivated soil
Dr P. Garnier, Sabine Houot
Urban compost use in agriculture has since long been seen as a mean to reverse the decline of soil organic matter and toimprove soil physical conditions, leading to both agronomic and environmental benefits. However, the application ofurban compost to soil affects nitrogen dynamics in soil through the release of mineral nitrogen that has to be consideredin plant fertilization to avoid nitrate leaching and ground water contamination related to excessive or unbalanced supplyof nutrients. Further Auhtors: Chalhoub M. - INRA, France Coquet Y. - AgroParistech-INRA, France J. Doublet - Veolia Environnement Recherche & Innovation, France
Rumen Content and anaerobic sludge co-inoculated of in Cellulose FED anaerobic batch digesters
Olivier Chapleur, Théodore Bouchez, Ariane Bize, Laurent Mazeas
Municipal solid waste is a very complex and heterogeneous system made of a wide range of materials. Among thesematerials, more than 50% are biodegradable and can be valorized through treatments based on anaerobic biologicalprocesses to produce biogas, a renewable source of energy. The ligno-cellulosic fraction of waste, mainly constituted by paper and cardboard (25%), plays an essential role in the production of biogas and is responsible for almost 80% ofbiogas emission (Eleazer, et al., 1997). Further Authors: T. Serain - Irstea, France
Removal of azo dye from textile wastewaters using anaerobic biomass: Optimization and experimental design
M. Sarioglu
Textile industry includes highly coloured wastewaters. Common groups of dyes in textile industry, azo dyes (60-70%), are characterized by their typical -N=N- nature. In general, dyes are not easily degradable and are not easily removed from wastewaters by conventional wastewater treatment systems. Therefore, physico-chemical methods such as adsorption, coagulation-flocculation, membrane filtration and advanced oxidation, can be used effectively for color removal from wastewaters. Further Authors: M. Askal - Cumhuriyet University, Turkey
MBT scrubber effluent: Wastewater or fertiliser?
Dr. Maria J. SebastiĂŁo, E. Vasconcelos
The design of waste air cleaning in Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) plants frequently includes acid scrubbing followed by biofiltration. The main purpose of the former process is to remove ammonia from the exhaust air, which produces odours and is toxic for the biofilter microorganisms. The ammonia is then solubilised as ammonium sulphate or ammonium nitrate, according to the acid used in the scrubber (sulphuric or nitric acid, respectively). When the washing solution reaches a preset conductivity, it is partially discharged and replaced by fresh water. As a consequence, an effluent with high ammonia concentration is produced, which is difficult and expensive to treat in a waste water treatment plant. Yet, if we see it in the agronomical perspective, an ammonia rich solution may not be a pollutant but a fertiliser. Further Authors: H. Ribeiro - Technical University of Lisbon D. Catalino - AMARSUL S.A.
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