Orbit 2008

6th International Conference in Wagingen, The Netherlands 13th to 15th of October 2008

Methods for quantifying gaseous emissions from full-scale windrow composting of garden waste
T.H. Christensen, Charlotte Scheutz
Two different methods for quantifying gaseous emissions have been used and assessed in this study. These are small scale point measurement methods and they were used at a composting facility treating garden waste: a flux chamber method and a dynamic funnel method. The present paper describes the generation of GHGs and their spatial and temporal distribution during composting. In addition the emissions of these GHGs have been quantified and related to the degraded mass of carbon and nitrogen respectively.
Maturity index of household waste compost: intensity of in vitro residual phytotoxicity on tomato (solanum aethiopicum)
The main objective of this research work was to demonstrate the cause and effect connection between the physical state of the biomass used as amendment in peri-urban market gardening and the development of the crops.
An analysis and compilation of respiration data found in different organic solid wastes
Raquel Barrena, Teresa Gea, , M. L. Ruggieri, Adriana Artola
Respiration activity for a solid waste is a crucial parameter to understand the behaviour ofthe waste in environment and for waste management aspects such as the definition of a suitable biological treatment and the determination of the potential rate of microbial self-heating if organic wastes are to be used as solid recovered fuels.
Modelling and nonlinear control of anaerobic co-digestion of agricultural waste
Dr.-Ing. Carla Cimatoribus, o. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Kranert
Although known since long, anaerobic practice still presents some problems, due to the high sensitivity of the process to operating conditions.
Fecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria in USA market ready green composts and relationship to management parameters
William Fisher Brinton,
Composting has emerged recently as a strategy for recycling waste organic matter as an alternative to landfilling andincineration. Originally regarded as a fertility management tool for organic farming (Mukherjee et al. 2004) it was adapted by developed nations in the 1950’s to tackle municipal solid waste (MSW) with poor results (Hickman, 2001). Dramatic growth in composting has come about recently in Europe and N. America as a means to attain legislated recycling and landfill reduction mandates (USEPA 1992). Bulky components of waste such as woody yard trimmings, grass clippings and food scraps, which may occupy up to 45% of the waste stream, are obvious targets. At least 22 states in America have imposed restrictions or bans on accumulation of yard trimmings in landfills. Compost recycling has grown with the expectation of absence of significant risk to society (Farrel 1992, USEPA 1992). Studies in the 1960’s indicated thermal inactivation of numerous pathogens from the sustained biological heating of composts (Wiley 1969). The USEPA sponsored studies on pathogen reduction in sewage sludge composting, and subsequently drafted the findings into regulation as the EPA-503 rule (Farrel, 1992). Since then, this 503 Rule has been widely applied to all types of recycled organic matter (ROM).
Investigation of the microbial population dynamics during the waste treatment for the evaluation of the biodegradability by the means of impedance analysis
Dr.-Ing. Dirk Weichgrebe,
The biodegradability or the achieved stabilisation degree of biologically treated waste are required parameters to provide the evidence of the fulfilment for the German Waste Storage Ordinance.
Bacterial community succession during a start-up period of large-scale composting reactor
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Composting is an efficient and cost-effective biological process to treat organic waste. Recently, a variety of bacterial community structures in the composting reactors have been reported. However, the microbial community in large-scale, completely-mixed composting reactors is still unclear.
Extracellular enzyme analysis to assess composting processes

Extracellular enzymes play a crucial role in composting environments as the active components that degrade macromolecules to smaller entities for assimilation into the microbial biomass.
Electroporation for enhanced methane yield from municipal solid waste
M. Carlsson, Professor Anders Lagerkvist, H. Ecke
Anaerobic degradation of biogenic waste is widely regarded as a promising contributor to a sustainable energy system.
Mechanical biological treatment and its role in Europe
Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang MĂŒller
Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) is a generic term for the integration of a number of waste management processes such as material recovery facilities (MRF), refuse derived fuel production (RDF), mechanical separation, sorting, composting and pasteurising.
Variation in ligninocellulolytic activities in dual and mixed cultures involving pleurotus eous and pleurotus citrinopileatus on cotton stalk
P. Balaji, V. Rajapandy, Dr. M. Eyini
Biochemical changes during biodegradaion of cotton stalk, the lignocellulosic crop residue under solid state fermentation were investigated using mixed cultures involving mushroom fungi, nitrogen fixing, cellulolytic or lignocellulolytic bacterial or actinomycete isolates.
Anaerobic digestion plants connected upstream of composting plants: technology, costs and efficiency
Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Turk, Dr.-Ing. Michael Kern
Requirements for planning and location of digestion plants for biowaste treatment and utilization are determined not only by technical constraints, but also by legal stipulations. These requirements can change rapidly.
Use of a gas tracing method to diagnose the aeration system in a large scale composting process
Anne Tremier, F. HĂ©non, Gérald Debenest, Jean-Luc Martel, Michel Quintard
In order to face up to the problems of pollution linked to the management of waste, environmental policies have been developed. In Europe, these policies promote waste prevention, recycling and reuse. In this context, biological treatments as composting are encouraged because they allow an agronomic reuse of the organic matter contained in biodegradable organic wastes.
Respiration and microbial community succession as compost stability indicators
Christina Chroni, A. Kyriacou, T. Manios, Dr. Katia Lasaridi
Since the new Paradigm in biodegradable waste management promotes resource recovery, composting still remains one of the main options. However, the assessment of compost stability, both as a product quality indicator and a process evolution index, is still a problem resisting intensive research efforts. Although a large variety of stability indexes has been proposed in the literature and some have been adopted in national regulations, the question of identifying parameters effectively reflecting the stabilisation process of organic matter during composting still remains.
The modulaare project– integrated modules for high efficient wastewater purification, waste treatment and regenerative energy recovery in tourism resorts
o. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Kranert, Dipl.-Ing. Gerold Hafner, Demet Antakyali, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jörg Krampe, ANDREA SCHULTHEIS
Germany, as one of the large travel nations, is specially responsible for a sustainable and environmentally adapted tourism. Therefore, one target of this research project is – among others - to verify the operation of an innovative, decentralised and modular system for waste water purification, waste treatment and production of energy from biogas in a large Tourists Resort located in Turkey.
An integrated monitoring system for optimisation of biopile composting
Dr. Mait Kriipsalu, Diauddin R Nammari, Dr. Marcia Marques, Professor William Hogland
Large quantities of organic wastes are treated by using biopile technology. The static biopile technique involves heaping the compost mixture into piles or cells and stimulating aerobic microbial activity by pneumatic aeration.
Trace metal mass transfer during thermophilic composting
Shouhai Yu, Dr. Daryl McCartney, Weixing Chen, Leah Zhou
A concern regarding MSW compost quality is the trace metal content. A study was initiated to assess the impact of various metal contaminants on compost quality.
Composting and horticultural use of composted olive mill wastes
Dr. Michael Raviv, Shlomit Medina, A. Krassnovsky, Ph.D. Yael Laor, Ido Aviani
One of the limiting factors to the continued expansion of the olive oil industry is the fact that both solid and liquid olive mill wastes (OMWs) pose serious environmental concerns due to their toxic nature.
Composting vegetal residues in areas affected by civil works
J. Dosta, J. Ainchil, R. Torres, Prof. Joan Mata-Álvarez
This study is part of a project focussed on the reduction of the adverse effects caused in sites affected by civil works and it consists on the composting treatment of vegetal residues coming from the clear of scrub in areas where civil works begins.
A comparative study for co-composting of river reed in ghana
George Nana Kwesi Rockson, Elias Delali Aklaku, Prof. Charles Quansah
A comparative trial to co-compost river reed harvest from the Volta Lake was conducted under the mechanically turned windrow and passively piped windrow systems.
Composting and the green house effect: how to support the biological cycle
Prof Dr. Michael Braungart
Eco-effectiveness and cradle-to-cradle design present an alternative design and production concept to the strategies of zero emission and ecoefficiency. Where eco-efficiency and zero emission seek to reduce the unintended negative consequences of processes of production and consumption, eco-effectiveness is a positive agenda for the conception and production of goods and services that incorporate social, economic, and environmental benefit, enabling triple top line growth.
Pig slurry management through composting
Dr. Francina Sole-Mauri, J. Capdevila, M. Oromi
Pig slurry presents limitation to its management through composting, due to the low solid content.
Bioconversion of organic wastes into organic manure by adopting different technologies
P. Mehalingam, A. Rajendran, M. Jayabalan
The bioconversion of wastes to useful products has tremendous potential in that it can help meet the increasing world demand for food and energy. Hence, the present study was carried out to make the vegetable wastes, hostel wastes, mushroom spent wastes and leaf litter compost adopting three different types of composting viz., Vermicomposting, Biodung vermicomposting and Chinese method of composting.
The ABP Regulation (EC) No. 1774/2002 and Hygiene Requirements for Composting
Dipl.-Ing. Florian Amlinger
A PowerPoint presentation
Technical adaptations of a tunnel composting plant for the treatment of organic kitchen waste in the nordic countries
Christoph Gareis
The example of the new composting plant of YTV shows, that central European criterions for the technical lay-out of a composting plant donÂŽt succeed. The different quality of biowaste and the different climatic conditions in Scandinavia have to be taken into account. The technical solutions of the plant are an important step towards reliably functioning composting in Scandinavia.
Increasing CO2 reductions related to source separation of Municipal Biowaste in the Netherlands
Ing. Willem Elsinga
We conclude that source separation of municipal biowaste, composting and digestion contribute to sustainable food production and to CO2 reduction. Because the important contribution of compost, efforts to increase CO2 reduction should not harm compost production. In The Netherlands, the biggest gain on CO2 was achieved when the government implemented the legal obligation for municipalities for source separation and composting municipal biowaste.
Composting plant evaluation in Merida, Mexico
Dr. D.Diana Cabañas-Vargas, Maria R. Sauri-Riancho, P. del G Garrido-Vivas, Elba R. Castillo-Borges
Problems associated with generation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in contemporary society are complex due to the large amounts produced and the diversity of the waste composition.
Evidence of mass transfer limitation in the composting process
B. Puyuelo, Teresa Gea, E. Pagans, Dr. Antoni SĂĄnchez
In general, it is assumed that hydrolysis of solid substrate is the limiting stage in the composting process. Since composting is an aerobic process, oxygen availability is of special importance.
Evolution of physical properties during the composting process of wastes of different biodegradable organic matter content and their influence on biodegradation kinetics
Teresa Gea, Tom L. Richard
Physical properties of organic materials have an important impact on the composting process.
Addition of grape stalks improves the physico-chemical properties of two-phase olive mill waste compost
M.L Cayuela, Miguel A. SĂĄnchez-Monedero, A. Roig
Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid sludge generated by the olive oil industry. It represents an important environmental problem in Spain, at present the foremost olive oil world producer, and also in other countries in the Mediterranean area.
Auto-management of organic waste from a small community by composting. The experience of Val Miñor (Galicia, Spain).
This project presents composting as a preferable option for the achievement of the integral treatment of the organic waste created in a small community.
The recycling of nutrients by means of organic residues
Prof. Marco de Bertoldi
Erosion and desertification are the most serious causes of soils degradation.
Design and construction of a replicated composting system at laboratory scale: technical characteristics and first homogeneity test
Domingo PĂ©rez, I. Villar, S. Mato, I. Armesto, J.C. GarcĂ­a
Composting is one of the most popular methods to treat those organic wastes which could be transformed into an useful compost.
Development of a software for forecasting the odour emissions from composting plants.
Dip.- Ing kaukab Harba, Prof. Dr. Ing. habil. Werner Bidlingmaier
Odour emissions that could arise from composting plants while operating pose a major problem for the designers, operators and neighbourhoods of composting plants.
Comparison low rate and high rate anaerobic digestions for septage from Songkhla Municipality, Thailand
Dr. Thaniya Kaosol
Septage is characterized by a high solid and organic content, large quantities of grit and grease, a great capacity to foam upon agitation, and poor settling and dewatering characteristics.
Soilification: man-made-soil as new resource for agriculture, reforestation and landscaping
Dr.-Ing. Olaf Pollmann, PhD, Prof. Dr. Leon van Rensburg, Dr. rer. silv. Christian Lange, Nelli Engel
The present work showed the methods used for waste treatment methods to be successful and have the benefit of sustainable water purification and soil and waste remediation.
Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of lignocellulosic materials with different animal by-products
M.L Cayuela, T. Sinicco, Claudio Mondini
The offset of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has become an important priority for all developed countries.
Reducing odour by process control when composting food waste with low pH
Cecilia Sundberg, Professor Martin Romantshuk, Jönsson Håkan, S. Kauppi, Erik Norgaard
Composting of source-separated biowaste (mainly food waste) has been rapidly expanding in Scandinavia during the last 15 years, but the plants often have problems with odour emissions.
Properties of compost and liquid compost making from fresh-cut vegetable residues
Assist. Prof., Dr.-Ing. Sivawan Phoolphundh, K. Kaosalniratisai, P. Lipimongkol, S. Choomuang
In Thailand, many fresh-cut vegetable producer companies had emerged due to the demand of customer and this also leads to high amount of vegetable residues which come from the cleaning and processing stages.
Organised source separation of household waste – pilot study of university staff residences in Ghana
Ms Mizpah Asase, Dr. Moses Y. Mensah, Samuel K. Amponsah
The purpose of this paper is to present the results and experiences of a pilot source separation of household solid waste conducted in households of staff of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in Ghana.
PCR quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in composted and liquid stored manures
Jr. Frederick C. Michel, Jing Chen, Lingling Wang, Srinand Sreevatsan, Mark Morrison
Antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly widespread, seriously undermining the effectiveness of antibiotics used to treat human and animal infections.
Oregon anaerobic digestion development
Dean C. Foor
Anaerobic digestion is known world wide to be a flexible and effective technology for treating organic waste from the municipal, industrial and agricultural sectors. The technology has been commercially proven to be a valuable source of renewable energy but remains substantially under represented in North America.
Reutilisation of green waste – a comparison of its recycling for energy generation purposes versus composting and peat substitution, with particular consideration of the CO2 balance.
Dipl.-Ing. Ralf Gottschall, o. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Kranert, Dr. Christian Bruns, Dipl.-Ing. Gerold Hafner
Green waste is increasingly extracted from the material recycling process and, as a result of the financial subsidy arising from the German Renewable Energy Law [Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG)] for the generation of energy from sustainable raw materials, it is fed into the energy recovery process in biomass power stations.
Development of quality assurance and quality characteristics of composts and digestates in Germany
Dr. Stefanie Siebert, Dipl.-Ing. Agr. Maria Thelen-JĂŒngling, Dr. Bertram Kehres
During the last 20 years numerous companies have undertaken considerable and successful efforts in order to open necessary markets for compost in Germany.
LC-CO2 evaluation of integrated anaerobic digestion processes for food waste treatment in Japan
Kazuyo Fukushima, Norio Nagao, Chiaki Niwa, Associate Professor Tatsuki Toda
In recent years, anaerobic digestion process has gained wide attention as an effective and environmental friendly method for food waste treatment, as opposed to incineration which leads to the production of toxic compounds such as dioxins, and low heat efficiency due to its high moisture content.
Anaerobic fermentation of dairy wastewater for biological hydrogen production
S.G. Won, Dr. Anthony K Lau
The objectives in this paper are meant to pave the way for future work on the co-digestion of agri-food waste, in the form of animal wastewater and food processing wastewater, so as to improve the utilization of dairy wastewater for hydrogen production as renewable bioenergy. In the longer term, the aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of cogeneration of power in the range of 0.5 to 2-3 kW via fuel cells that utilize the biohydrogen produced, with application on farm, or off-farm such as home appliances.
Ammonia emissions subsequent to anaerobic treatment
PD Dr. Ing. habil. Ina Körner
Due to the upcoming energy crises, the generation of bioenergy from different biomass sources gains more and more importance. Anaerobic treatment is one possibility for bioenergy generation.
Improved energy supply, waste management and climate effects by use of biogas technology in South African prison farms
PD Dr.-Ing. Konrad Soyez, Dr. H.O. Markert, N Ndumo, John Francois Friend
Energy needs for room heating, warm water and steam production in South African prisons are normally acquired from electricity produced via fossil fuels.
Review of state of knowledge on phopsphorus availability from composts
Dr Munoo Prasad
There have been a number of publications and review of nitrogen availability from composts using plant uptake in pot and field trials, and using incubation and laboratory testing procedures. However there is limited information on phosphorus availability from compost.
The RrRU-BMW project - 134 weeks pilot source separation of bioorganic municipal waste in Shenyang, China
L.F. Maia, Prof. Dr. habil. Bernhard Raninger, Prof. Dr. Ing. habil. Werner Bidlingmaier, L. Feng, X. Luo
Source separation in BMW (Bioorganic Municipal Waste) and in RMW (Remaining Municipal Waste) and the collection of those fractions were introduced in 4 pilot areas in 2 districts of Shenyang. The results for the first year of the project have been reported (ORBIT 2006). In two of the areas the project activities continued for another two years.
Physical structure is more important in determining leachate properties of waste-derived organic matter than ‘total’ contents
H.O. Bishop, Professor Tim R. Wheeler, Professor Stephen Nortcliff, Dr. Ross Cameron
Diverting biodegradable municipal waste from landfill is a statutory requirement in the UK, under the Landfill Directive.
The use of non-conventional biomasses in enhancing biogas production and reducing costs of anaerobic digestion plants at farmscale
Andrea Schievano, Giuliana D’Imporzano, Prof. Fabrizio Adani
Biogas plants at farm level are good candidates in treating organic residues of both municipalities and industrial sector in a cost-effective way and in providing territorially diffused electric and thermal power. This may represent a future development for agrarian economy.
Problems and successess of digestate utilization on crops
Marianna Makådi, Attila Tomócsik, J. Lengyel, Árpåd Mårton
In Hungary – like in the EU – the legislation and regulation of handling of animal residues are likely to be increasingly stringent. Therefore farmers are trying to find the environmentally sound methods of these processes. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the possibilities which can reduce the likelihood of causing land and ground water pollution.
Improvement of an existing anaerobic digestion plant: technical and economical analysis
Prof-Ing. Francesco Di Maria, Gregorio Pavesi, Sergio Leombruni
The exploitation of renewable sources for satisfy energy demand of human activities, is of primary importance for reducing green house gasses emission, pollutant substances emission and for achieve a sustainable and environmentally sound development.
Use of composted communal sewage sludge in agriculture
Attila Tomócsik, Marianna Makådi, J. Mészåros, Gy. Tóth, Árpåd Mårton
The increasing ratio of wastewater cleaning results in an increase in the amount of sewage sludge. The environmentally sound utilization of this sludge is an unsolved problem both in Hungary and around the world (Gardner, 1998).
Decentralised treatment of slaughter house solid waste
Dr., Asst Professor S. Jayanthi, S. JothiVenkatraman, Abdul Jaleel
The effectiveness of polymer addition to the aeration tank effluent prior to sludge flotation as practiced in a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant.
History of organic waste management in the Kathmandu valley
Dipl. Ing. Christian Springer, Prof. Dr. Ing. habil. Werner Bidlingmaier
Until 1960, almost all of the waste in Kathmandu was organic and became recycled by processing it to compost. Traditionally the waste generated in households was sold directly to the farmers or it was placed in so called ‘saagas’ (‘saa’ means compost and ‘gaa’ means pit).
An evaluation of fertilisation requirement during establishment of Salix cv. Tora hardwood rods in waste-derived organic media (WDOs) and a ‘brownfield’ spoil
Rebecca S. Wheeler, Dr. Ross Cameron, H.O. Bishop, Professor Stephen Nortcliff, Professor Paul Hadley
Waste-derived organics (WDOs) have the potential to help amend brownfield soils, but the extent to which they can support the establishment of vegetation (e.g. biofuel crops such as willow) requires clarification.
Control of gas emissions during composting of municipal solid waste, municipal biowaste and industrial biowaste
HĂ©lĂšne Bacheley, Cédric Francou, M. Chevallier, M. Poitrenaud
The environmental quality of composting means both the capacity to produce composts of high environmental and agronomic quality, and no health or environmental impact of the process.
Improvement of the quality of municipal solid waste compost
Monique Kallassy, Boris Efremenko
Composting of wastes is a way to recover their organic matter and to produce a soil improver useful to compensate the deficit in organic matter in extensive agricultural zone
Influence of Cr inhibitor on the H2S formation and biogas production volume using industrial sludge waste source with sulphur reduction bacteria addition
Dr. Sri R Juliastuti, Nanik A. Rahman
Industrial sludge waste disposal receives increasing attention and the Indonesian legislation concerning the discharge of industrial sludge waste as landfill is very strict.
Biological co-treatment of agroindustrial wastes.
Dr. Enrique Aymerich Soler, José María García-Mina, Dr. L. Sancho
The production of organic wastes is growing world-wide, while agricultural soils are witnessing a progressive reduction in their organic content.
Air emissions from composting facilities in California, USA
G.M. Savage, Dr. Luis F. Diaz
Control of emissions from composting facilities in California is required to reduce emissions of odors, volatile organic compounds, or both to acceptable levels.
Design of a prototype composting bioreactor for the treatment of sewage sludge and other organic waste
Dimitris K. Malamis, Dr. Evangelios Kapetanios, M. Loizidou
The environmentally sound and commercially feasible management of sewage sludge is a major issue that all European countries confront. Sewage sludge arises from the processes of wastewater treatment and represents one of the top priority waste streams.
A new approach to obtain energy from wet organic waste
Assist. Prof. Dr. Gorkem Akinci, M. Bilgin, G. Gök, Prof. Dr. Ertugrul Erdin
Composition of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) depends on many factors such as climate, geography, population, and also social and economical features of the countries.
The situation with greenhouse gases from composting and digestion plants for biowaste
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Carsten Cuhls
Gewitra company is carrying out R&D project on determining gaseous emissions from different types of large scale treatment plants for biowaste in Germany.
Nutrient recovery from digestates of agricultural biogas plants - an adaptation of wastewater treatment processes
Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Haupt, Dipl.-Ing. Julia Alexeeva-Steiniger, Professor Dr.-Ing. Jörg Londong
In terms of a sustainable resource and energy economy it is to state that the potential of organic material or biomass prevails those of other renewable energies.
GHG savings from biological treatment and application of compost
Dr.-Ing. Konrad Schleiss
Biological treatment of waste and compost utilisation are two elements of waste management that can influence GHG emissions.
Effects of compost and digestate on environment and plant production - results of two research projects
Dr. Jacques G. Fuchs, Dr.-Ing. Konrad Schleiss
Composts and digestates can influence soil fertility and plant health. These influences can be positive or negative, depending of the quality of the products and on their utilization.
Past, present and future of composting in the Netherlands
G.J. de Jong
In the Netherlands we have a well developed composting industry originated by separate collection of organic household waste.
EU no 1774/2002; experiences with process validation of biowaste composting & digestion in the Netherlands
Ing. Willem Elsinga
Direct process evaluation makes it possible to study the reduction of selected microbes/pathogens separately by using inoculated probes or bags, but the reduction conditions in the probes/bags are not always the same as in the surrounding material in the process.
Changes in soil microbial community composition using cellular markers (PLFA) in soils amended with olive-mill waste composts
Miguel A. SĂĄnchez-Monedero, Dana ElhottovĂĄ, A. Roig, PhD Prof. Miloslav Ć imek
Olive mill wastes, generated from the extraction of olive oil, represent an important environmental problem in Mediterranean areas where they are generated in large amounts in short periods of time, between November and April.
Organic solid waste conversion into hydrogen
Diana Ramírez-Såenz, C. Guerrero-Barajas, PhD E. Inés García-Peña
The exhaustion of fossil fuels is imminent, for this reason the interest in the production of renewable fuels has been increasing over the years.
Processing municipal solid waste in Kolkata Metropolitan Area
S. Dev Sasanka
Waste is gradually becoming a major threat to environment and ecology. Our air, land, water – all are getting polluted due to waste produced by the human society.
Quality of separately collected bioorganic municipal waste and BMW compost of Shenyang, China
Dr.-Ing. Martin J. Gehring, L. Feng, Prof. Dr. habil. Bernhard Raninger, Prof. Dr. Rundong Li
Precautionary thinking requires with regard to the application to soils of BMW compost that the compost is as ‘clean’ as possible.
Organic residue compost application for soil nutrient improvement in water-saving cultivation of the crops after rice
Dr. Praphasri Chongpraditnun, Mitsuo Chino, M. Oda, K. Nakamura, Dr. Osamu Ito
The research objective is to improve soil nutrient by applying organic residue compost in the paddy field for growing the crops after rice under water-saving cultivation during a dry season in rain fed area.
Enhancement of biohydrogen production by brewery waste yeast addition through dark fermentation
Arunee Supasinsathit, Assist. Prof. Dr. Charnwit Kositanon
The combination of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies can generate electricity and thermal energy, with only water as a by- product, resulting in a global no net carbon-emission.
Air monitoring around MSW sanitary landfills in Wallonia: feedback of 10 years field surveys
C. Collart, Vincent Lebrun, Sébastien Fays, V. Salpéteur, Jacques Nicolas
The Wallonian monitoring network of sanitary landfills is a unique public multidisciplinary tool for environment quality assessment.
Sustainable strategies for biomass use in the European context – potentials of residues
Dipl.-Ing. agr. Thilo Seidenberger, Prof. Dr. Ing. Daniela ThrÀn
To develop sustainable strategies for production of bioenergy and especially for the use of residues the question of available potential has to discuss. This paper includes data of technical residue potentials in the EU-28 and describes the methods used.
Comparative study on anaerobic digestion of IBMW and co-digestion of IBMW with OFMSW
Dr., Asst Professor S. Jayanthi, E. Sarojini, K. Prashanthini, S. JothiVenkatraman
Batch studies on anaerobic digestion of Infectious Biomedical waste (IBMW) and co-digestion of IBMW with organic fractions of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were carried out. Segregated IBMW were obtained from one of the hospitals in Coimbatore.
Bacth system for study of (Cr) biosorption by dried waste activated sludge
Dr Mahdi Farzadkia, M. Gholami, G.K. Shams
Biosorption processes, defined as the sorption of metal ions by biomass, are being employed as an alternative technique for the decontamination of industrial effluents and for the recovery of the retained metals.
Life cycle assessment of use cascades for animal fat and used cooking oil
Dr.-Ing. Christoph Herrmann, Dr.-Ing. Ralf Bock, Dr.-Ing. Tina Dettmer
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to find the best ecological alternative for animal fat use. Thinking in cascades, after their use as lubricant an energetic use of animal fat and used cooking oil esters is still possible and can − once more − replace limited resources like fossil fuels.
Birch bark bioactive compounds in designer composts
Ingeborg Menzler-Hokkanen, H.M.T. Hokkanen
The potential for application of bioactive compounds from birch bark as components of designer, functional composts are reviewed in this paper.
LCA-modelling (EASEWASTE) of growth media preparation: comparison between peat and compost
Alessio Boldrin, T.H. Christensen
Plant production industry uses large quantities of peat for preparing growth media. Peatlands are significant reservoirs of carbon, which is released back to the atmosphere once peat is used as a soil amendment and degraded. Excavation of peatlands, also including the fuel used for the machinery, may pose an impact on the environment. Compost cansubstitute peat in growth media preparation.
Biogenic carbon accounting in LCAmodelling: comparison of different criteria
T.H. Christensen, Emmanuel Gentil, Alessio Boldrin, Anna W. Larsen, Michael Z. Hauschild
In this study we have tested 5 sets of criteria for assigning GWPs to the C flows in waste management system. A simplified model was established for the waste management system and the surrounding industries represented by the pulp and paper manufacturing industry, the forestry industry and the energy industry.
The use of ground bark and wood chips from a short rotation plantation for on farm composting: effect of tree species on the micronutrient content
Dr. ir. Bart Vandecasteele, Koen Willekens, G. Du Laing, Dr. ir. Alex Vliegher, F.M.G. Tack
The effect of tree species on the nutrient concentrations of composts is assessed in this study. In the first part of the study, micronutrient levels were assessed in bark and wood of several poplar and willow clones in a 3-year old plantation.
The biosecurity of on-farm mortality composting
Dr. Kevin Wilkinson, T.D. Glanville, Kim Stanford, Johannes Biala
This paper reviews the available information on the biosecurity of mortality composting and identifies potential sources of risk. Reports to date of the use of composting in emergency animal disease outbreaks are also discussed.
Brownfields, biofuels, biofeedstocks, composts and clos
Prof. R.P. Bardos, Dr. Ross Cameron, Professor Stephen Nortcliff, Professor Paul Hadley, H.O. Bishop
This paper provides a perspective on the issues of biofuels, marginal land management and the use of recycled organic matter on marginal land for the production of biofuels. It draws on experience from project work in the UK and also highlights the ‘Rejuvenate’ project, which will explore these issues at the European scale.
Olive-mill waste management & greenhouse gases: a life cycle assessment of carbon emissions
Ioanna Dimitriou, Miguel A. SĂĄnchez-Monedero, Edward I. Stentiford
Olive mill wastes generated from the extraction of olive oil have been associated with a number of adverse environmental impacts in the Mediterranean region.
Aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment of solid waste in spain - results of a survey
Esther Vecino, Dr. Ing. JuliĂĄn Uriate
ATEGRUSÂź started studying the Spanish compost situation in 2001, with the general aim of detecting the main technologies used in Spain, the general state of the plants and the market of the final product (compost). (PPT-format)
Bio-degradable waste and by-products from food industry management systems in lithuania: analysis, problems and improvement possibilities
Rasa Juskaite-Norbutiene, Dr. Romanas Cesnaitis
The main overall problem in Lithuania is the absence of the formulated bio-degradable waste treatment strategy in the country and there is the complex of other smaller problems blocking the development of an effective strategy.
Is aerobic composting capable of degrading pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics in sewage sludge?
Margrethe M. Andersen, L. Clowes, P.H. Petersen, J. Kirkeby
There is a growing interest in EU in finding environmental sustainable ways of using the enormous amounts of sewage sludge produced by the wastewater treatments plants. The sewage sludge contains both inorganic and organic compounds of which many inorganic salts are derived from the farmland soil and transported to the sewage sludge via food and feed crops to the human end uses and finally ends in the wastewater and the sewage sludge.
Environmental analysis of vegetable, fruit and garden-waste digestion
Ir. Harry A.L. van Ewijk
This paper concerning the Environmental analysis of Vegetable, Fruit and Garden (VFG) digestion is based on the Dutch IVAM report: “Milieuanalyse vergisten GFT-afval” (Ewijk, 2008). The Dutch Waste Management Association (Vereniging Afvalbedrijven) commissioned this research project. Composting is used as reference.
Effect of urban sewage sludge compost on soil bacterial biodiversity and enzymatic activities.
Dr. JesĂșs J. GonzĂĄlez-LĂłpez, Marina RodrĂ­guez-DĂ­az, Eloy Robles, Antonio Luis PĂ©rez-Lomas, Carmen CortĂ©s-Lorenzo
The present work will focus in the study of general biodiversity changes, including general bacterial community profiles, and it is part of a project aiming to understand changes in edaphologic parameters, bacterial communities, and heavy metal contents effected by the addition of sewage sludge compost to two different agricultural soils from the region of Andalusia, Spain.
An easy incubation method for measuring nitrogen mineralization from soils and organic residues
C.M.D.S. Cordovil, , A. Kokkonen
The growth of the population in the last century, and the acknowledgment that the growth will continue, lead to various problems. One of the problems is the need to produce enough food to the entire population, witch will lead to an excessive use of the land, and to its impoverishment in nutrients and organic matter, soil physical conditions degradation, increasing problems with plagues and diseases, and environmental pollution due to fertilizers applications, among others.
Guidelines on feasibility assessment of generating renewable energy from organic waste and biomass in developing countries
Assoc. Prof. Avraam Karagiannidis, Dr. Martin Wittmaier, Dipl.-Ing. Stefanie Langer, Dr. Apostolos Malamakis
Aim of this work is to provide practical and yet comprehensive guidelines for the preparation of integrated feasibility studies for the renewable energy sector, considering technical, environmental, economic, socio-cultural, legal and institutional aspects which are particularly applicable for developing countries.
Sludge composting: influence of the waste physical preparation on initial free air space, air permeability and specific surface
Celine Druilhe, Jean-Claude Benoist, P. Radigois, Cécile Teglia, Anne Trémier
An experimental apparatus, allowing the characterization of about 40L solid samples and combining features of an air pycnometer and an air permeameter, was developed and validated. The validation, consisting in a comparison between the theoretical and experimental free air space and air permeability values obtained with spherical beads, showed the good accuracy of the measurements.
The synergies of co-digesting diverse waste streams and upgrading of biogas for natural gas use in the Stavanger region of Norway
O. Tornes
The IVAR company is the organisation responsible for the provision of drinking water and wastewater treatment in the Stavanger region of Norway. IVAR also has responsibility for the management and treatment of solid waste in the region. It is the policy of the IVAR company to establish holistic environmental and beneficial solutions for treatment of wet organic waste from trade and industry which are subjected to new regulations.
Investigating the possibility of using waste cooking oil from the university student’s dinning facilities as an energy source
Prof. John Pumwa
This is an attempt to improve the waste vegetable oil’s chemical and physical characteristics that will allow the oil to be used as an energy source and at the same time reducing the associated environmental problems.
A review on emission characteristics from refuse-derived fuel incineration
Yanji Li, Zhenzhen Guan
Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) incineration is a common waste to energy technology in many countries. This paper presents an overview of researches on the emissions characteristics of RDF incineration process.
GMF gouda paddle dryer for thermal treatment of dewatered sludge
ir. Ron J.M. van Heijningen
Many wastewater treatment plants are coping with a waste stream of digested sludge. The sludge is normally dewatered by means of a centrifuge or belt filter press. After dewatering the sludge has a typical dry solids content of approx. 20 - 25%, which is very suitable for thermal treatment in a GMF-Gouda paddle dryer.
Feasibility of electricity generation from municipal solid waste in Ghana - a waste management technology
Dr. Moses Y. Mensah, C. Kotey
Engineered landfill sites are under construction in five areas in Ghana whose average power extraction would be between 1-2MW. It would therefore be feasible and cost effective in producing electricity in Ghana from the municipal waste, which would as well be environmentally friendly.
Input of organic micropollutants in soil through compost application: possible transfer to plants.
Sabine Houot, V. Brochier, M. Deschamps
A long term field experiment has been initiated in 1998 to study the effects of urban compost application on soil and plant qualities.
Ecological sanitation projects from around the world and their links with the solid waste sector
Sören RĂŒd, Elisabeth v. MĂŒnch
This paper explores the common issues that exist in the ecosan field and in the solid waste sector, with regards to collection, transport, treatment and reuse. It describes ecosan pilot and up-scaling projects from the Philippines, India, Germany and Africa, which show in one way or another these common elements.
Comparative analysis of the effect of catalyst in biodiesel
Dr. Moses Y. Mensah, E. M. Kwofie, C. Kotey
This paper seeks to justify the use of potassium hydroxide as a potential catalyst substitute for sodium hydroxide in the commercial production of biodiesel in Ghana considering its availability as a by - product production of cocoa.
Landfill wastewater treatment plants (WTP) permeates vs EU directive 2000/60/CE: case study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
Vincent Lebrun, Olivier le Bussy, Ali Kheffi, C. Collart, V. Salpéteur
Directive 2000/60/EC requires that permeates discharged in surface waters by landfill leachate treatment plants, respect limit values for priority substances emission.
Open windrow composting of gardening non-green waste and household fresh green waste of Lamphun City, Thailand
Ladawan Wattanachira, Prof. Dr. Suraphong Wattanachira, Prof. Dr. Ing. habil. Werner Bidlingmaier
Lamphun city in northern Thailand is annually faced with serious air pollution problem during winter to summer period due to open burning of agricultural waste and household solid waste. The promising way of attenuating this problem is to educate and convince people to change their habit from making an open burning of biowaste to another practice.
Stabilisation and sanitisation of wastewater biosolids during composting
Dr. Katia Lasaridi, Stamatis Stamatiadis, A. Kyriacou
This work aimed at gaining an insight on the development of antibiotic resistance in biosolids microbial population, as this may also pose risks to public health and soil ecosystems.
Situation of energy from public waste in Hungary
Gåbor Eörsi-Tóta, Istvan Tóth
Greenhouse effect is caused by green house gases in the atmosphere which prevent the emission of infrared rays into the space. According to the most accepted scientific theory the increase of greenhouse effect is responsible for global warming and not the other way round.
Effect of ozone, thermal and ultrasound pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sewage sludge
Prof. Joan Mata-Álvarez, T. Benabdallah El-Hadj, E. Franchini, J. Dosta
The aim of the present work is to compare the effect of the three pre-treatment (OT, TT and US) on both PS and SS during mesophilic (MAD) and thermophilic (TAD) anaerobic digestion.
Safety and agronomic efficiency of compost application on vineyard with respect to its organic micropollutants content
Prof. Dominique Patureau, N. DelgenĂšs, J.P. DelgenĂšs, C. Lhoutellier, F. Laurent
The objective of this study was to determine the fate of NPE, LAS, PAH, PCB, PCDD/F and PAE after compost application at the lab- and field-scale in a vineyard agronomic context of low organic matter Mediterranean soil.
Lipor: biowaste strategy. The importance of selective collection
Eng. Susana M. Lopes
As conclusion, with the project “Operação Restauração 5 Estrelas” it’s possible to send for composting the organicwaste produced by the restaurants, canteens and hotels assuring a high level of quality for the source separated material.
Potential peat replacement by vermicompost, a by-product of the earthworm industry
LiliĂĄn Campos-Mota, Chris Blok
Vermicompost is a substrate that may be a component of potting media since it has a high microbial activity enhanced by the earthworms and enough nutrient content for the initial requirements of the plant growth.
Vacuum-heat-drying for residual waste and biomasses
Dipl.-Geoökol. Tobias Bahr, Katarina Ávila, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Fricke, Dipl.-Ing. Christian Widmer
First experiments with a bench-scale model had proved the general applicability of vacuum-heat-drying treatment for solid waste. The knowledge gained from this indicated that this treatment may have both, an ecological and economical advantage over biological and atmospheric-physical drying treatment due to shorter treatment periods and lower exit air amounts.
Evaluation of the initiatives taken in an urban area of bangladesh to increase the level of MSW collection and public awareness
Jhumana Akter, Professor Dr. Muhammed Alamgir, Dipl.-Ing. Gunnar HĂ€drich, , I.M. Rafizul
This paper focuses on the decisive evaluation of the existing system and level of source storage, primary collection and city dwellers awareness and perception of MSW management at Ward No. 24 of Khulna City, the third largest metropolitan city of Bangladesh.
Determining whether estimated spore release rates for Aspergillus fumigatus are compatible with their measured growth rates in composting systems
Dr. Louise A. Fletcher, Edward I. Stentiford, A.A. Kemp
Although the sporulation data presented in this paper were determined from controlled laboratory experiments they show that it is possible for Aspergillus fumigatus to generate spores at a sufficient rate to allow the release of significant numbers of spores every second.
Demo compost plant in Khulna of Bangladesh: search for acceptable composting technology
K. M. Mehedi Hasan, Q. H. Bari, Professor Dr. Muhammed Alamgir, Dr.-Ing. Jürgen Martens, Dipl.-Ing. Gunnar HĂ€drich
To search an acceptable composting technology for the country, a Demo Compost plant is built as a part of WasteSafe II research project in cooperation with a NGO named as Samadhan, in its premises at Khalishpur area of Khulna city.
Requierements on mobile anaerobic digestion units for long distance operations

Mobile anaerobic facilities could be introduced to refugee camps for disposing and simultaneously recycling faeces.Mobile anaerobic facilities principally have a broad spectrum of application that ranges from the treatment of faeces and bio waste in refugee camps to the recycling of temporarily produced agricultural organic waste.
The challenges of implementing on-site composting in an industrial manufacturing business
Johannes Biala
Although the road to successfully implementing on-site composting in an industrial manufacturing business and realising its zero-waste policy has been much longer and much rockier than anticipated, and we are by no means at the end of this road, it was and still is the best available option for GELITA Australia to deal with its organic by-products and ensure they are used beneficially.
Application of high density digestate of pig manure in peat mixtures for use as potting soil
Chris Blok, Dr. ir. Jan Broeze
The amount of manure which can be used to improve agricultural soils is legally limited by the amount of nitrate and phosphate.
Secondary chemical building blocks from novel biorefining of agrifood wastes for a future bio-based industrial chemistry
Dr. Leonardo Setti, Dr. Dario Zanichelli, Dr. Elena Ansaloni
This approach was named PHENBUSTER suggesting a novel concept for the bio-refinering of agrifood wastes with the aim of substituting secondary chemical building blocks with the same compounds naturally present in biomass.
Degradation of MSW during landfilling in China and its impact on GHG emission reduction
Prof. Dr. habil. Bernhard Raninger, Prof. Dr. Rundong Li, Hai-lian Zhang, L. Feng
Landfill gas recovery and utilization projects enjoy preferential policies in China. China plans to hold the highest number of CDM projects worldwide encourage renewable energy production including landfill gas interventions.
Evaluation of a test set-up for combined bio-hydrogen- and methane-production at mesophilic conditions
Ruth Brunstermann
This paper deals on one hand starting with the process of dark fermentation to produce bio-hydrogen. Therefore digested sludge of a wastewater treatment plant (WWT) and two different composts were tested as inoculums in batch tests related to GB 21 (DIN 38414 S8) at mesophilic conditions (35°C) with glucose as substrate. The run time of the batch test was 5 to 6 days.
Biogas power plants and organic waste for energy regulating
Prof. Dr.-Ing. JĂŒrgen Voss, Dipl.-Ing. Martin Tigges, Dipl.- Phys. Ing. Jörg Bendfeld, Dipl.-Wirt.-Ing. Michael Splett
Before renewable energy can be used more intensely, some problems have to be solved. One of them has to do with balancing the natural feed-in fluctuations of volatile energy sources like the wind or the sun.
Combined heat and composting
E. A. Neil Winship, D. Holmes, PhD D. Notton
Food is fuel for animals including humans so it is unsurprising that biowastes are a potential source of energy.
Research leads to building of 100,000 tonne compost facility for peat reduction
Dr Munoo Prasad, W.R. Carlile, M.J. Maher
This paper demonstrates how research conducted during the last 10 years has been the basis of large scale investment and a successful commercial implementation of peat dilution on a large scale based on indigenous waste resources.
Towards a biobased economy: co-digestion within the north sea bio energy project
Ir. Hendrik Jan van Dooren, D. Durksz, Thomassen
This paper focused on research performed within the theme use of biomass for biogas production
Torrefied grass fibres as a substitute for peat in potting soil
R. Trifonova, Dr. Joeke Postma, Dr.ir. Jan J.M.H. Ketelaars, Jan Dirk van Elsas
Since the late 1970s, there has been a worldwide search for new peat substitutes. Natural grass fibres may substitute peat and be applied as a new ingredient of potting soils.
Future prospects of CDM framework to develop a sustainable landfill system in Bangladesh to replace open dumping
Professor Dr. Muhammed Alamgir, Prof. Dr. Ing. habil. Werner Bidlingmaier, Dipl.-Ing. Sajjad Hossain, K. M. Mohiuddin, M. R. Islam
Uncontrolled dumping of solid waste around the world becomes one of the major striking social and environmental issues.
Estimating the nutrient degradation in biogas-batch processes
Dr. Dirk Banemann, Dipl.-Ing. Nils Engler, Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Frank Scholwin, L. Grosse
With the presented ISBV it is possible to compare different substrates on the basis of biogas yield and degradation rates. Different plant species can be assessed by their degradation rates of different plant components.
Evaluating the interaction of transport mechanisms through dairy manure to determine the effects on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions
Marlyse K. Williams, Tom L. Richard, Eileen Fabian Wheeler
Several studies have previously investigated methods to reduce gas emissions from dairy slurry systems, but few studies have evaluated emissions from semi-solid manure systems or what promotes gas release from semi-solid manure stacks.
Managing organic waste in turkey: the relation among the characterization, properties and results
Assist. Prof. Dr. Gorkem Akinci, M. Bilgin, Prof. Dr. Ertugrul Erdin, Dr. Elif Duyusen Guven
The composting systems will be offered in the future need to have features compatible to Turkish solid waste and should be affordable to be operated by municipalities. Additionally, mixed waste collection systems in Turkish Municipalities need to switch source separated collection systems to reduce the charges of composting plants and future incineration plants.
Energy efficiency of mechanical-biological waste treatment
Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang MĂŒller, Prof. Dr. Rainer Wallmann, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Fricke, Dipl.-Ing. JĂŒrgen Hake
The different types or sources of energy (electricity, gas, diesel and heat) cannot be compared or balanced in a direct way due to their different energetic qualities, despite they are all stated in the same unit (kWh).
Solid state fermentation of renewable resources in batch-operated systems – limitations and potentials
Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Haupt,
It could be shown that renewable resources in batch-operated solid state anaerobic digestion process act in a different way. Therefore the first step of plant operators should be a procedure specific choice of appropriate substrates.
Greenhouse gas emission reduction by aerobic treatment of old landfills
Prof. Dr.-Ing Gerhard Rettenberger
Old landfill have a big contribution to greenhouse gas emissions an should be treated in the future worldwide to avoidlandfill gas emissions. Even in industrialized countries old landfills have a big contribution to the greenhouse effect.
Behavior and attitudes changes needed for improving biological treatment of organic waste in latin american communities
Msc. Nathalie Jean Baptiste
In 2006 a focused study on the State of Morelos was carried out. Through a snowball sampling, a number of composting practitioners and professionals were contacted. Three composting plants were visited, and field data was collected.
Start-up of biological waste treatment plants: degradation behaviour, methane formation and safety of plants
Dr. rer. nat. Karsten Kanning, Dr.-Ing. Ketel Ketelsen
In Germany in the years 2000 to 2005 plant capacities for the mechanical and biological treatment of waste have been built, which fulfil the latest legal requirements of the German regulations and standards for the storage waste in landfills and the protection against emission from MBT plants of the year 2001.
Sewage enriched by kitchen waste: potential for hydrogen production by bioprocesses
Dr. ir. Karolien Vanbroekhoven, Doga Arslan, B. Baeyens, B. Calli, Ludo Diels
Bioreactors (jacketed systems) have been operated in batch using sewage from the local wastewater treatment plant enriched by two different organic waste fractions, i.e., kitchen waste artificially prepared according to literature and a real kitchen waste originating from a university restaurant.
Future projections of private-public participation in human excreta management in Kampala, Uganda
Richard Oyoo
It has been shown that the use of a system dynamics modelling approach can be very beneficial in understanding the dynamics of private sector involvement in the wastewater management in Kampala.
A feasibility study for renewable electricity production from organic residues on the island of phu quoc, vietnam
Assoc. Prof. Avraam Karagiannidis, Dr. Martin Wittmaier, Dipl.-Ing. Stefanie Langer
The presented feasibility study outlines those options by describing their technical concept (i.e. substrate supply, process and facilities, construction), energy utilization and distribution aspects.
Anaerobic digestion in Europe: state-of-the-art 2008
Luc de Baere, Bruno Mattheeuws
Anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction from municipal solid waste was developed more than 20 years ago and underwent rapid development since the mid-nineties.
municipal handbook on door to door separate waste collection in catalonia (spain)
Dr. I. Puig Ventosa, E. Coll i Gelabert, J. Colomer i Missé, P. Martín Gascon, L. Álvarez Prado
The Catalan Association of municipalities for door to door selective waste collection published the Municipal handbook on door to door separate waste collection in Catalonia. This initiative has received the support of several regional administrations.
Aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment of solid waste in Spain - results of a survey
Esther Vecino, Dr. Ing. JuliĂĄn Uriate
ATEGRUSÂź started studying the Spanish compost situation in 2001, with the general aim of detecting the main technologies used in Spain, the general state of the plants and the market of the final product (compost). (ppt-presentation)
Developing a sustainable landfilling framework for greece: assessment of the biomethane potential from sanitary landfills
Assoc. Prof. Avraam Karagiannidis, Thomas Tsatsarelis
Purpose of this study is the estimation of methane which is and will be produced in new Hellenic sanitary landfills.
Assessment of composting approaches to enhance waste management systems in rural areas in the Philippines
Dr. Johannes Paul, Maricel J. Jarencio, Engr. Jouke Boorsma, Engr. Elvis T. Libradilla
This paper evaluates data from six case studies of municipal composting projects in the Western Visayas namely: Bayawan City, Bais City and San Carlos City on Negros Island, Buenavista Municipality on Guimaras Island and Roxas City and Passi City on Panay Island.
Legal management and contractual peculiarities in foreign sanitation and waste management business
Dipl.- Ing. Christoph Werner
Foreign business is a new challenge for the sanitation management industry as far as legal management and contractual form is concerned.
An integrated innovative project for sustainable production of bioethanol, methane and compost from sweet potato
Prof. Marco de Bertoldi, Prof. Dr. Ing. habil. Werner Bidlingmaier
Because of shortage and cost of fossil petrol, there is a continuous research for alternative energy sources.
Improving of potato (solanum tuberosum l.) production by compost application under the UAE conditions
Mohammed A. Salem, Wasef A. Al-Zayadneh
Incorporation of the compost into the soil will not only protect the environment, but also takes advantage of the nutrients and organic matter contained in the compost to enhance soil fertility and crop production.
Grundlagenseminar - Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz 2009
Ass. jur. Dipl.-Betriebswirt René Walter
76 power-point-Folien ĂŒber das Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz 2009: Fachverband Biogas e.V.; Aktueller Sachstand; Änderungen im Überblick; VergĂŒtungen; Anlagenbeggriff


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