Zeit- und ortsaufgelöste Spurenstoffanalyse in Feuerungsanlagen für biogene Reststoffe mittels Laser-Massenspektrometrie

Die im Brennraum von Feuerungsanlagen für biogene Festbrennstoffe vorherrschenden Bedingungen können die Bildung von umweltrelevanten Spurenschadstoffen begünstigen. Bei hohen Temperaturen verknüpfen sich die vielfältigen Spaltprodukte des Lignins u. a. durch Ringschluss, Kondensation und Dehydrierung in komplexen Nebenreaktionen zu aromatischen Ringsystemen.

Bei den nach der 1. BImSchV eingeordneten Kleinfeuerungsanlagen stammen nach Angaben des Umweltbundesamtes mehr als 90% der gesamten Emissionen von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK) aus Anlagen für Holz und biogene Reststoffe [1]. Effektive Maßnahmen zur Minderung oder Verhinderung der Entstehung lassen sich einleiten, wenn die spezifischen Reaktionsbedingungen und der Ort der Entstehung bekannt sowie die theoretischen Reaktionsmechanismen praktisch nachvollziehbar sind. Demnach sind der selektive, aber vor allem zeit- und ortsaufgelöste Nachweis und die Quantifizierung von aromatischen Spurenschadstoffen zwingend notwendig.

Bisherige Online-Verfahren zum Nachweis und Messung von Schadstoffen im Spurenbereich sind zumeist hinsichtlich der Zielsubstanzen oder des Auflösungsvermögens sehr begrenzt. Speziell Methoden zum Nachweis von aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen stützen sich auf indirekte Sorptions- und Anreicherungsverfahren in Verbindung mit klassischen Trenn- und Detektionsverfahren wie Gaschromatographie (GC) und Massenspektrometrie (MS). Solche Messungen lassen jedoch keine Aussage über den jeweiligen Ort der Entstehung und den zeitlichen Verlauf der Emissionen zu. Die bei klassischen Ionisationsverfahren (ESI, CI) notwendige chromatische Trennung der Analyten beschränkt zudem das zeitliche Auflösungsvermögen.

[1] Struschka M.; Kilgus D.; Springmann M.; Baumbach G. (2008): Effiziente Bereitstellung aktueller Emissionsdaten für die Luftreinhaltung, UBA-FB 001217, Bd. 44-08, Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit

Copyright: © DGAW - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Abfallwirtschaft e.V.
Quelle: 4. Wissenschaftskongress März 2014 - Münster (März 2014)
Seiten: 4
Preis inkl. MwSt.: € 2,00
Autor: Andreas Seidler

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