Waste-to-Resources 2009

MBA und Sortingplants


Vermicomposting of Unsorted Municipal Solid Waste
Eng. Rui Daniel Berkemeier
The Vermicomposting (aerobic composting with red earthworms) of unsorted mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) being pioneered by Lavoisier, a Portuguese enterprise, with the support of the NGO Quercus, is an adaptation of an organic waste treatment technology that has been around for a long time. The innovation is the application of earthworm composting to the treatment of mixed MSW allowing immediate diversion from landfill and high levels of separation of recyclables. The process, installed by the AMAVE - Municipal Association of River Ave Valley, includes a pre-composting phase in order to prepare the waste to feed the worms.Through pre-composting organic waste is digested by aerobic micro organisms. After this phase worms are fed with waste and digest the remaining organic matter, producing humus and cleaning plastics, glass and metals. Keywords: Vermicomposting, Earthworms, Biowaste, MBT, Humus, Recycling, MSW, Plastic 1 Introduction 2 The process in the AMAVE plant 3 Mass balance 4 Humus quality 5 Costs of the process 6 Greenhouse gases emission reductions 7 Future projects 8 Vermicomposting and MSW management
Bio-stabilization of municipal solid waste prior to landfill: Environmental and economic assessment
Prof. Pinjing He, Zhenghao Shao, Dongqing Zhang, Prof.Dr. Liming Shao
The bio-stabilization included 16 days of active stage with enhanced aeration and 84 days of curing stage. The results showed that MSW weight was reduced by nearly 85% and MSW stability improved, with respiration activity (AT4) and anaerobic gas production (GB21) being reduced by 93% and 87%, respectively. The dramatic degradation of organic matter occurred in the active stage of bio-stabilization. Based on the bio-stabilization results, the economic and environmental analysis was conducted following 3 scenarios: the conventional landfill (CL), the combination of active stage of bio-stabilization and subsequent sanitary landfill (AL), and the combination of both active and curing stage of bio-stabilization and subsequent sanitary landfill (ACL). The results showed that AL could substantially save land resource and mitigate landfill pollutions, and the costs of AL would be the lowest as well. Keywords: Municipal solid waste, Bio-stabilization, Landfill, Environmental and economic analysis 1 Introduction 2 Materials and Methods 3 Result 3.1 MSW weight 3.2 Volatile solid 3.3 Leachate test 3.4 Biological stability 4 Environmental and Economic Analysis 4.1 Scenarios 4.2 Land area saving 4.3 Environmental pollutions estimate 4.4 Economical benefit and cost 5 Conclusion
Defining the best process for a Mechanical-Biological Treatment Plant
StĂ©phane VAUCHÉ
Before outlining a Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) or Mechanical-Biological Pretreatment (MBP) process, we should take a look at 3 points that are essential to the success of a plant project. - Firstly, we will see why we need to have good knowledge of the composition of the source Household Waste (HW). - Then, we will mention the new trend of favouring recovery of recyclables. - Finally, we will show the advantages of sorting prior to pre-fermentation. After looking at these 3 points, we will see, in simple terms, which objectives are decisive when choosing the treatment method. Finally, we propose an MBT process enabling you to achieve the set objectives, and the possible adaptations for changing or upgrading it. 1 The essential points 1.1 Composition of the collected refuse 1.2 Favouring recovery of recyclables 1.3 Advantage of sorting prior to pre-fermentation 1.3.1 Limiting the pollution of the source HW 1.3.2 Optimising the size of the plant 2 Objectives of the MBT plant 2.1 Producing compost 2.2 Stabilisation by composting 2.3 Producing energy 2.4 Recovering recyclable materials 3 Standard process proposal 3.1 1st Process: 2 modules 3.2 2nd process: 3 modules 3.3 3rd process: 4 modules
Renewable energy production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste through two-phase anaerobic digestion
Eylem DOGAN, Prof. Dr. Göksel N. Demırer
In this study, biochemical methane production (BMP) experiments were performed in order to investigate whether phase separation enhanced the efficiency of methanogenic activity or not. The performances were compared in terms of tCOD and VS reductions, and cumulative gas production. The experimental results indicated that 10% and 23% increases in tCOD and VS removals were achieved, respectively, by phase separation. The acetic and propionic acids were not detected in the reactors which was an indication of successful methanization. Keywords: Anaerobic, biogas, organic fraction of municipal solid waste, phase separation 1 Introduction 2 Materials and Methods 2.1 Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste and Anaerobic Seed Culture 2.2 Experimental Set-up 2.3 Analytical Methods 3 Results and Discussions 4 Conclusions
Mechanical-biological treatment as a strategically project for the social and environmental development
Christiane Dias Pereira, Wolfgang Tonges, LetĂ­cia Tavares Theotonio
Through the experiences of different countries, notably Chile, Haiti and Brazil, the using of the Mechanical Biological Treatment of residues was projected involving a series of components directed to the development and improvement of the life quality for the populations. The application of the MBT, as a solution for a parcel of the urban residues, is carried through by technical and holistic elements, where the economic, social and environmental aspects are equated in an integrated proposal of handling and treatment. The concept of valuation of residues is extended to beyond the productive activities, including pedagogical activities, territorial organization, environmental protection and social inclusion. Keywords: Waste treatment, social and environmental development, emissions reduction, environmental education 1 Summary 2 Technical introduction of MBT 3 Mechanical and biological treatment products 4 MBT: social development and environmental protection 5 Individual Projects Overview 5.1 Chile 5.2 Haiti 6 Conclusion
Low-Cost-Techniques of Intensive Biodegradation and Maturation
Dipl.-Ing. Karsten Runge, Thomas Hölscher
Techniques for mechanical-biological treatment of solid fraction of household waste taking their seats in the waste management business of many countries. MBT facilities working as a complement or as a low cost option for incineration facilities. Further on there is still a large demand for many MBT facilities to improve the aerobic biological treatment process, to reduce operation costs and to increase reliability. With the help of some examples the possibilities to improve existing facilities will be shown and technical solutions for planning and construction of new facilities will be discussed. Keywords: MBT, aerobic treatment, composting, maturation, optimization, operating cost 1 Introduction 1.1 MBT – Current status and perspectives 1.2 Optimising potential 2 Optimising potential in aerobic treatment 2.1 The biodegradation process – Everything under control 2.2 The input material – flexibility counts 2.3 The financials – Efficient application of technology 2.4 Practical experience - Examples 2.4.1 MBT Cröbern 2.4.2 MBT Rosenow 2.4.3 MBT Schwanebeck 2.4.4 Dynamic tunnel composting – a pilot scheme 3 Summary
Simulation of biological plants working with municipal solid waste
Bernard Morvan
To build mechanical biological plants, municipalities and engineer departments need tools to compare different proposals. The methodology to test a plant aims knowing the flow sheet of each stream in the composting or anaerobic digestion plant, quantifying the weight of refuses, gas losses, stabilised waste and compost. With a universal model of matter we can establish the material balance for dry matter, organic matter, and various categories of MSW. With a library of equipment tools and various kinds of waste, many simulations become possible in fictive plants. The validation of the simulation software has been successfully tested after the plant building. The first software was developed under excel but today, it has been improved through a special application of Ecoval, named Compowaste. Keywords: MBT, MSW, Municipal Solid Waste, Simulation, Compost, Composting, Impurities. 1 Introduction 2 Methodology 2.1 Sampling 2.2 The model of matter 2.2.1 Drying 2.2.2 Sieving 2.2.3 Sorting 2.3 Precision 2.4 Material balance 3 Simulation 3.1 The library of tools 3.2 The input 3.3 The graph drawing 3.4 Modifications 3.5 Calculations 4 Uses 4.1 Material balance in composting plants 4.2 The economic point of view 4.3 The waste management 4.4 Users 5 Conclusion
The Latest Generation of RTO Plants
Dipl.-Ing. Andreas Breeger
The deadline for implementing the 30th BImSchV (German Federal Immission Control Ordinance) for mechanical biological waste treatment has expired. In the meantime, the exhaust air cleaning plants (thermal post-combustion and biological systems) have been in operation for up to four years. Operating experience regarding compliance with the limit values, corrosion issues and difficulties due to siloxanes exists and will be presented in this essay. In particular, practical examples of operational RTO systems optimized for applications in the MBT field will be introduced. keywords: Regenerative thermal oxidation plants, 30th BImSchV, German Federal Immission Control Ordinance, siloxanes, corrosion, mechanical-biological waste treatment 1 Reduction of Emissions for MBT Plants 2 Compliance with Limit Values 3 Deposits in RTO Plants 4 Corrosion Issues 5 Prospective Outlook
Gaseous emissions reduction from aerobic MBT of municipal solid waste
Isabelle Zdanevitch, Pascal Mallard, Olivier Bour, M. Briand
Surface gaseous emissions, composition of soil gas and VOC concentration were determined on a French MBT plant, where the biodegradation process is aerobic. Measurements were performed on both the composting windrows and on the landfill cell which receives the sorting rejects. This allowed the comparison of the global methane and CO2 gases, as well as the characterization of the degradation process on the different parts of the site. The performance of the sorting chain allow to obtain a highgrade compost, which can be valorised on agricultural fields, and leads to deposit much smaller quantities of degradable waste than in a classical landfill site, and to lowering seriously the generation of methane. Therefore, landfill gas (LFG) does not need to be recovered and treated by classical means, e.g. flares. keywords: aerobic MBT, gaseous emissions, landfill cell, surface flux, VOC 1 Introduction 2 Composting process 3 Material and methods 3.1 Surface fluxes measurements 3.2 Composition of biogas 3.3 Trace VOC emission 4 Results 4.1 Surface emissions of CH4 and CO2: comparison between the windrows and the landfill cell 4.2 Gas composition in the compost 4.3 Effect of windrow turning on the gas concentrations 4.4 Surface VOC emissions 4.4.1 Composition 4.4.2 Estimation of VOC surface fluxes 5 Conclusions
Multiplexed NIR spectroscopic Sensors and NIR spectroscopic Imaging: Two Solutions for Sensor based Waste Sorting in Comparison
Arne Volland
Recently hyperspectral NIR imaging systems, which work without optical multiplexers and handle 256 tracks at scan rates of up to 330Hz, have been eveloped. However, they have a reduced dynamic range of 12 Bit and detect only the shortwave NIR spectral range up to 1.76m, which may limit the possible applications. At belt widths of up to 2 meters these new systems can be used for sorting standard plastics as well as plastic flakes >5mm. The article compares the advantages and limitations of both systems and demonstrates the fields of use on the basis of practice-oriented examples. Keywords: Plastic, sorting, hyperspectral, multispectral, imaging, near infrared, NIR, sensor 1 Plastic identification with NIR 2 NIR-sensors 3 Identification of PET-bottles with different plastic labels 4 Combined NIR- and colour recognition with KustaMPL 5 Sorting of shreddered electronic waste (WEEE) with KustaMSI 6 Conclusion and prospects
Hyperspectral imaging detection architectures for polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) identification inside plastic waste streams
Prof. Silvia Serranti, Prof. Dr-Ing. Giuseppe Bonifazi
Since polymers are continuously replacing other materials in major consumer products, the consumption of plastic increases faster than the economy as a whole. One of the weakest points in the recycling system is the reuse of waste plastic. There are many kinds of plastics utilised in every day life: polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The most important polymers in the consumer goods and the least recycled plastics materials are the polyolefin’s. The reason can be mainly attributed to the complexity of these wastes according to different polymers (rubber, foam, etc.) and polluting (not polymers) materials (wood, aluminium, copper, stones, glass, etc.) commonly present in plastic waste streams. In this paper an innovative sensing technology, based on an hyperspectral imaging (HSI) approach, is presented and discussed: i) to determine the quality of waste plastic feed and ii) to set up new sorting strategies for pure PP and PE recovery. keywords: Plastic recycling, plastic waste characteristics, polyolefin’s, hyperspectral imaging, sorting, quality control. 1 Introduction 2 Polyolefins characteristics and recycling 3 Hyperspectral imaging 4 Experimental 4.1 Laboratory set up, spectral acquisition and analysis 4.2 Sample preparation 5 Results
Continuous Measurement of Waste Material Volume Flow
Dipl.-Ing. Yvonne Schockert, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thomas Pretz
At the present time, volume flow rates in waste treatment plants are determined only discontinuously. With the aid of a contactless, sensor-based method the volume of theconveyed waste stream can be detected in real-time. In addition, nformation about the locations of the transported materials can be given. The data can be used to monitor and control aggregates. The procedure is applicable to all regular facilities of waste treatment plants. Keywords: Controlling and monitoring of aggregates, laser triangulation, sensor based technology 1 Introduction 2 Methods 2.1 Laser Triangulation 2.2 Measurement Setup 2.2.1 Laser 2.2.2 Camera 2.2.3 Evaluation Software 2.2.4 Properties of the Measurement Setup 2.3 Data Acquisition 3 Applications 3.1 Data Usage 3.2 Classifier 3.3 Sorter 3.4 Shredder 4 Prospective Outlook 5 Conclusion
Modeling of waste management processes so as to increase the efficient use of natural resources – outlook and future demands
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Henning Albers, Dipl.-Geoökol. Sebastian Wolff, Dr. Martin Wittmaier, Dipl.-Ing. Stefanie Langer, Anke Schmidt
Since the ban on placing untreated waste in landfill sites (Technical Instructions on Municipal Waste) came into force in June 2005, the increasing number of material waste streams in need of coordination has led to increased complexity of the recycling and disposal structures in the waste management and recycling industry, whereby the issues of material and energy efficiency are gaining importance. An approach to analyzing and optimizing these complex processes is offered in a project currently being undertaken at Bremen University of Applied Sciences in collaboration with partners from the industry itself. Here, as the basis for the development of software applications, a material flow model for the waste management and recycling industry is being developed for the purpose of supporting material waste flow management and thus helping to lay the foundations for better resource and cost efficiency in this industry. Keywords: Modeling, waste management processes, resource efficiency, energy efficiency, material efficiency, material flow analysis. 1 The need for action 2 Project description 2.1 Aims 2.2 Development of a waste characteristic 3 Case study: Optimization of a waste-fueled power station
Recyclables and Sorting Plants on the Market – Special Aspects of Antitrust Law, Public Procurement Law and Fiscal Law
Rechtsanwalt und Fachanwalt fĂŒr Vergaberecht Dr. Frank Wenzel
This article presents a survey on questions arising in the fields of antitrust law, public procurement law, and fiscal law, when contracts of recyclables (incl. sorting) are drafted. Keywords: Recyclables, sorting plants, antitrust law, public procurement law, fiscal law 1 Introduction 2 Public Procurement Law 2.1 Special Aspects concerning Recyclables 2.2 Special Aspects concerning Sorting Plants 3 Antitrust Law 3.1 The Legal Market Definition Concept 3.2 Markets for Recyclables and the Sorting of Recyclables 4 Fiscal Law 4.1 Privileges of Sovereign Enterprises 4.2 Turnover Tax and Turnover Resembling a Barter Transaction 5 Summary and Outlook
Reliable determination of element contents in heterogeneous waste fractions
Dipl.-Ing. Ralf Ketelhut
Recently a particle based procedure has been developed to characterize chlorine content in heterogeneous waste fractions by sorting analysis and fractionated chemical analysis. The procedure generates reliable results including variances within a few hours. At the same time the development of mobile RFA analysis allows on-site analytical characterization. The combination of sorting analysis and RFA elemental characterization may offer the opportunity for an on-site multiple elements haracterization within a short period of time. For testing those opportunities a RDF has been characterized not only by sorting but also by RFA analysis. The results show that the elements lead, cadmium, antimony,chromium and zinc are distributed extremely heterogeneous as known for the element chlorine. For every single element different “levels of preferred concentrations” occur. Therefore the result of a chemical analysis is strongly depending on the number of high load contributors reaching the sample and their particle weight. Keywords: Element Contents; heterogeneous wastes; reliability; sorting analysis; mobile RFA analysis; on-site-analysis; quality assurance; input control; sample size definition 1 Introduction 2 Sorting Analysis 3 RF-Testing 3.1 Results Chlorine 3.2 Results Lead 3.3 Results Cadmium 3.4 Results antimony 3.5 Results chromium 3.6 Results zinc 4 Load portions and recommended sample sizes
Municipal solid waste composition and assessment: a cases tudy in Kocaeli, Turkey
Dr. Ertan Durmusoglu
Composition of municipal wastes as well as projection of waste-generation and -disposal rates is need to plan and implement disposal and recycling activities. The primary objectives of the study are to characterize and evaluate the recycling potentials of the municipal solid waste. Waste sorts were conducted during the summer and winter of 2008 at the City of Kocaeli. A detailed physical sampling protocol was outlined. Weight fractions of 17 waste components were quantified from all geographic areas that contribute to the Kocaeli Sanitary Landfills. Each region was divided into four groups, i.e., lowincome, middle-income, high-income and commercial district. Comparisons of solid waste generated between locations and seasons were conducted. The composition of the entire waste stream was organic wastes (38 – 41%), recyclable items (26 – 38%), combustible wastes (15 – 22%), hazardous wastes (1 – 2%), and others (3 – 12%). Keywords: Municipal solid wastes, solid waste composition, recycling 1 Introduction 2 Methodology 3 Results and discussion 4. Conclusions
Results of comparative studies of various European parameters for determining degree of biological stabilization
Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang MĂŒller
Base for the comparison of various European parameters for determination of biological stability degree of products of biological treatment of residual waste, were investigations conducted on different plants for biological treatment in Europe. Samples of the input material, of intermediate products and the output material were taken and the following parameters were investigated: BM100, SRI, DR4, ASTM, PDRI. The results of laboratory tests were statistically evaluated to find out correlations between the differentparameters. Keywords: Municipal solid waste, mechanical-biological treatment, MBT, biological stabilisation, SRI 1 Introduction 2 Stability tests 3 Correlation calculations 4 Tested MBT plants and sampling 4.1 Overview of tested MBT plants 4.2 Sampling 5 Results of correlation tests
Evaluation of the biodegradability of organic waste by the means of impedance analysis
Dipl.-Ing. Paul Stopp
The biodegradability and consequently the stabilization degree of biologically treated waste is a required parameter to provide the evidence of the fulfillment for the German Waste Storage Ordinance (AbfAblV, 2002). The in appendix 2, AbfAblV recommended test procedures RA4 (Respiration Activity over 4 days) and GF21 (Gas Formation over 21 days) takes at least 4 or 21 days respectively. Moreover, despite uniform regulation, obtained analytical results show a strong dispersion of the values particularly with regard to different laboratories. Within this work basics for a new microbiological approach, the impedance analysis, are examined for the evaluation of the biodegradability. A clear correlation resulted in the case of impedance measurement and biodegradability. In addition the impedance values can be converted with appropriate regression equations into the standard parameters RA4 and GF21. Hence, it seems suitable, that organic waste samples may be controlled within a day on their depositing ability according to AbfAblV or the efficiency of the biological treatment processes could be examined by impedance analysis. Keywords: Biodegradability, Composting, Municipal Solid Waste, Impedance, Microbial Population Dynamic, RA4, GF21. MBT 1 Introduction 2 Background 3 Research Objectives 4 Methodology 4.1 Treatment Process and Sampling 4.2 Selective Media and Incubations Conditions 5 Results and Discussion 5.1 Plate Count 5.2 Impedimetric Approach 6 Conclusions
Reactivity of MBT-Waste - A new approach to identify failures of biological tests
Dr. Katharina Meissl, Dipl.-Ing Erwin Binner, Dipl. Ing. Dr. Ena Smidt, Dipl.-Ing. Johannes Tintner
The “Austrian Landfill Ordinance” (BGBl. II Nr. 39/2008) (BMLFUW, 2008) provides requirements for the disposal of wastes. Limit values regarding reactivity such as respiration activity and gas generation sum (by incubation test) or gas evolution (by fermentation test) have to be met before landfilling. On the one hand this approach serves as security and on the other hand these tests are very time consuming (4 and 21 days resp.). Thus, it was aimed for, to develop new analytical tools for the determination of reactivity parameters. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used as a non-destructive method to predict reactivity parameters and to identify errors resulting from inhibiting effects on biological tests. Keywords: Mechanically-biologically pretreated waste (MBT), respiration activity, gas generation sum, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, multivariate data analysis, Partial Least Square Regression (PLS-R)
Experience of MBT-Landfills and Stability Investigations
Dr.-Ing. Karsten Hupe, Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang Oltmanns, Dr.-Ing. Kai-Uwe Heyer, Fred Brandt, Dipl.-Ing. R. JĂ€ger
The technical requirements for landfilling of MBT-residues on landfills in Lower Saxony are described and the realisation of the requirements on the MBT-landfill Hillern is explained. In terms of a certain compliance with the geomechanical stability of the MBTlandfill body, recommendations for the landfill operation are developed based on extensive site-specific investigations and stability calculations. Keywords: MBT-landfill, landfill operation, stability calculation, stability proof
Contracting Solution for Energy-Supply of a Food-Production Site
Thomas Hegner, Karl-Heinz Plepla
Putting the RDF CHP-plant Stavenhagen (Refused Derived Fuels Combined Heat and Power Plant) in operation by the contractor Nehlsen AG, enabled supplying the company Pfanni, potatoes based food products, with process vapor and electricity, not from a primary fossil fuel but from a secondary solid fuel, generated from a MBT Mechanical- Biological-Waste-Treatment plant. The advantages of this innovative energy supply process are saving of fossil energy resources and thermal remediation of waste, which is a consequent completion with the principles of waste recycling economy. The remains quality of this process complies perfectly with the preconditions of waste for landfill discharge. In addition this plant secures current jobs of the food and food-supporting industry, including creation of new jobs within the RDF CHP-plant. Last but not least the MBT plant represent a real investment alternative for energy supply at the company Pfanni. Keywords: RDF CHP Plant, MBT Plant, Company Pfanni, Process steam and electricity 1 General Description of the CHP Stavenhagen 2 Incineration Unit and Boiler 3 Turbo Generator Kit and Air Capacitor 4 Flue Gas Purification 5 Some interesting Remarks
Municipal Solid Waste bio-drying eco-balance and Kyoto protocol
Dr.-Ing. Dipl. Marco Ragazzi, Dr.-Ing. Dipl. Elena Cristina Rada
Bio-drying is a process aimed to Refuse Derived Fuel generation through water evaporation and post-treatment of selection. This option allows avoiding direct combustion of waste and opens to alternative strategies as co-combustion in thermal power plants where the efficiency of electricity generation could be higher than the one of conventional incinerators. The present paper analyses in details a few aspects related to CO2 balances for bio-drying in order to give a contribution to a correct understanding of the process. Keywords: Bio-drying, CO2, emissions, Kyoto Protocol, MSW, RDF 1 Introduction 2 Methods 3 Results and discussion 4 Conclusions
Recyclable materials recovery after biological treatment of the residual fraction: quality improvement and contribution to landfill diversion targets
Dr. Sergio Scotti
Even in districts where source separated collections are implemented, a Residual Fraction remains. This fraction can be treated in MBT (Mechanical Biological Treatment) Plants that, other than stabilising biologically the waste, can produce a fuel and other recyclable fractions. Further materials recovery for recycling purpose is possible: the critical point is the quality of the materials that should be recycled. Results of experimental and industrial experiences of simple materials recovery techniques applied to residual waste in different plants where the residual fraction has been submitted to aerobic biodrying process are presented. Keywords: MBT, Biodrying, recycling, residual fraction 1 Introduction 2 Trials and Data Collection 3 Discussion 4 Conclusion
Effect of bio-drying on sorting and combustion performances of municipal solid waste
Prof.Dr. Liming Shao, Dongqing Zhang, Prof. Pinjing He
The aerobic and combined hydrolytic–aerobic bio-drying processes were separately set up to investigate sorting and combustion performances of MSW by bio-drying. Results showed that the sorting efficiency was found to be correlated with water content negatively (correlation coefficient, R=–0.89) and organics degradation positively (R=0.92). The high heating values were correlated with organics degradation positively (R=0.90), whereas the low heating values were negatively correlated with water content (R=–0.96). The potential emissions of combustion gases were correlated with organics degradation (correlation coefficient, R=0.67 for HCl, R=0.96 for SO2, R=0.91 for PCDD/Fs and R=–0.60 for NOx). Interestingly, the bio-drying could significantly improve the ratio of gas emissions to low heating values, although it resulted in the increase of the emissions per kg of combustion wastes. Keywords: Municipal solid waste; bio-drying; sorting efficiency; combustion; HCl; SO2; NOx; PCDD/Fs 1 Introduction 2 Materials and methods 2.1 Characteristics of the MSW feedstock 2.2 Experimental equipment 2.3 Experimental setup and operation 2.4 Sampling and analytical methods 2.5 Combustion experiment 2.6 Statistical analysis 3 Results and discussions 3.1 Organics degradation and water content during bio-drying 3.2 Sorting efficiency during bio-drying 3.3 Heating values during bio-drying 3.4 Emissions of HCl, SO2 and NOx and Potential for PCDD/Fs formation in the combustion during bio-drying 4 Conclusions
Machinery for preparing different qualities of RDF
Mag. Dr. Martin Wellacher, Rudolf Pretzler
The present situation in waste management in the European Union shows dynamic development of waste treatment technology. To accomplish the European Waste Directive waste treatment is essential for enhancing recycling and recovery and reducing disposal. The work was performed by means of visits to RDF plants, interviews of operating personal followed by calculations of mass balances and economical indices. Three types of RDF were defined according their qualities, “RDF light”, “RDF classic” and “RDF premium”. Each type was defined by summarizing three applications. A design recommendation for a ballistic-separator dominated RDF plant is given. Due to the reduced and different machinery this plant shows advantages related to a wind-sifter dominated plant. The differences in energy demand run up to -27%, in investment -23% and in operating costs -22%. Meanwhile two new RDF plants are built in Hagenbrunn, Lower Austria, A, and in Bernburg, Saxony, D, according the proposed technology. Keywords: Waste, treatment, refuse derived fuel, shredder, ballistic separation, wind-sifting 1 Introduction 2 Methods 3 Results 4 Discussion
Feasibility of Acoustic Sorting for Black Materials in Solid Waste Processing
M.Sc. Jiu Huang, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thomas Pretz
During the last decade sensor based sorting like 3D cameras and Near – Infra – Red (NIR) sorting made a huge technical improvement and enabled its industrial implementation. One of the still remaining problem lies within the sorting of black materials like plastics and rubbers which are very difficult to sort by using conventional visual sensors. This results from absorption of NIR emissions. The black materials have different structures and acoustic emissions when an impact is given. By using the acquisition and analysis of the acoustic signals from the impact in frequency-domain, the characteristics and features of different materials can be extracted and then transferred to the sorting system as sorting criteria. The key device of acoustic signal acquirement and analysis is the Data Acquisition (DAQ) card. With the high development of signal processing technologies, the capacity, compatibility, stability and flexibility of a soundcard is already adequate for industrial measurements and its price is much lower than the professional DAQ cards. The Signal acquirement and analysis systems which are discussed in this paper are therefore based on computer soundcards. Keywords: Sensor based sorting, Impact acoustic, Spectrum analysis, LabVIEW 1 Introduction 2 Preparation of the Experiment 2.1 Construction of the Experimental System 2.2 Demand of Software and Device 2.3 The Method of Signal Processing and Analysis 3 Configuration of the Device Parameters 3.1 Settings for FFT Analysis 3.1.1 The Aliasing Effect 3.1.2 The Leakage Effect and Window Functions 3.2 Configuration of Soundcard 4 Process of Experiment and Analysis of Results 4.1 Selection of a suitable Shape for Particles 4.2 The Feature of the Impact Plate 4.3 Analysis of the obtained Results 5 Conclusion
Quality Improvement in RDF and Other Non-metallic Products through Magnet and Sensor Sorting
Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Kohaupt
Solid waste has become a material source for various applications, such as Residue Derived Fuel (RDF), polymers, or wood for chip board production. The removal of components which reduce quality is essential for the widespread use of these materials. A recent feature of sensor sorting systems is magnetic separation, which has become a must for quality-assured RDF. State-of-the-art technologies include inductive sensoring, x-ray transmission and near infrared spectroscopy. Keywords: Magnetic sorting, eddy current separation, sensor sorting systems, residue derived fuel, wood recycling 1 The Source of Raw Material 2 The Process 3 Sorting Solutions To Date:Magnetic Separation in the Broader Sense 3.1 Suspension Magnets 3.2 Eddy Current Separators 4 Sensor Sorting Systems open up New Possibilities 5 Conclusion
Mechanical Biological Treatment and its role in Europe
Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang MĂŒller
Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) is a generic term for the integration of a number of waste management processes such as materials recovery facilities (MRF), refuse derived fuel (RDF) production, mechanical separation, sorting, composting and pasteurising. In order to minimise environmental nuisance for odour, fly and noise nuisance, these facilities are required to be housed within a building and normally under negative pressure. The use of bio-filters is also required to treat any odour problems. The MBT process is designed to take residual or black bin waste and process it so that valuable recyclable materials can be separated out and the biomass or “compostable” element is separated out and processed through an In Vessel Composting (IVC) or an Anaerobic Digestion (AD) system.
Fire Extinguishing Concepts for Recycling Plants
Dipl.-Wirt.-Ing. GĂŒnter Knopf
This fire extinguishing concept analyses problems that may occur with fires in recycling plants and shows improved procedures for safe and economical automatic fire fighting. 1 Fire Extinguishing Concepts for Recycling Plants 1.1 Problem Outline 1.2 Fire Risk 2 Choice of Extinction Method 2.1 Possible Extinction Methods 2.2 Assessment of Fire Extinction Methods 2.3 Choice of Method 3. ONE-SEVEN Compressed Air Foam Extinction System 3.1 Extinguishing Capacity 3.2 System Suitability and Use
Municipal Solid Waste Treatment - Experiences getting from practice
N.T.D. Trang, Nguyen Binh, Nguyen Gia Long
Looking for a suitable municipal waste management’s method for town and district is an important task for Vietnam. In such areas the generated waste amount is not big and waste service hardly joins to the public Urban Environment Company’s system, due to a high cost of transportation. In this case, therefore a private company, the Hydraulic- Machine Co., LTD has developed an appropriate technology made in Vietnam. This technology uses for “Treatment of Solid Waste into Fuels” (MBT-CD.08), which has got the Certification of Vietnam Technology Ownership and it is being on the way of extend its application throughout the country. Schematic diagram of the MBT-CD.08, material flow, heat value of the RDF product and the emission as well as scientific comments were reported. Key words: Technology, treatment, solid waste, fuel, material flow, heat value, emission, hazardous substance, mechanical sorting.
Policy and technology status regarding Waste-to-Energy and the role of MBT in Korea
Ph.D. Hyunhee Lee
The Ministry of Environment has established ‘Comprehensive Master plan for Waste to- Energy’ in response to high oil prices, greenhouse gas reduction, and control of ocean dumping of liquid organic waste. The goal of waste control policy has always been the safe and sanitary disposal of wastes; from now on, however, it will include the recovery of energy as well as the safe disposal of wastes. Specifically, energy recovery shall be promoted with 33,376 tons/day of combustible wastes for landfill and liquid organic wastes dumped into the ocean to achieve the 31% goal by 2012 and 100% goal by 2020. Likewise, 57 facilities shall be built including MBT facilities, RDF power plants, biogasification facilities, and power plants for 31% energy recovery by 2012. To carry out these measures, approximately USD 2.16 billion needs to be invested; thus generating economic benefits of USD 877 million per year beginning 2012, creating 17,000 jobs, and enabling Korea to respond to international treaties related to climate change. Keywords: Waste-to-Energy, Combustible wastes, Organic wastes, MBT, Biogasification, Energy recovery, Power plant
Experience of Tehran in Improving Integrated Waste Management- Focus on MBT Methods
S. Amir N. Harati, Farhad Pormohammad sakha
This study focuses on solid waste management in Tehran and the strategies for gaining to the best result with focus on BMT systems. As the MBT is the most important system in Tehran solid waste management hence there are different technologies that are more used in waste management. This paper proposes methodological approach for combination of above mention systems. The results show BMT adopts with Tehran waste characteristics carefully. Mean while, the MBT methodology has been applied for Solid waste management in Tehran. Keywords: Waste Management, compost, MBT Methods, CDM
Material Recovery Stations in City of Tehran: A Case Study
Mahak Sabouri, Mohammad Mehdi Anvari
This paper presents practical experiences in design, manufacturing and management of the Material Recovery Station (MRS). In addition this paper uses some related information to report the current state of MRS in Tehran. Here, Tehran's MRS systems will be analyzed with respect to their performances. Considering the local needs, a tailor made cost-effective waste recovery system is proposed to optimize the current MRS. It is estimated that once the proposed MRS plant is implemented, it will increase the recovery rate by 5 to 10 percent. In other words, considering all the 22 stations in Tehran municipality equipped with the proposed system, at least 140,000 tons of waste per day can be recovered and hence diverted from the landfill. Keywords: Material Recovery Station, Municipal waste, Source Separation, Recovery Line, Recovery System
Environmental and Economical Aspects for Municipal Solid Waste Treatment Alternatives in Some Lithuanian Regions: Incineration and/or Mechanical Biological Treatment
Dr. Assoc. Prof. Gintaras Denafas, Dr. Assoc. Prof. Dainius Martuzevicius, Nijole VaupĆĄiene
Seeking to satisfy the requirements Lithuanian Strategic Waste Management Plan the feasibilities of two main alternatives like incineration and mechanical-biological treatment have been accessed for some Lithuanian waste management regions. This assessment has been performed by use of LCA-IWM assessment tool. It is evident that alternative of MMSW incineration in some energetic and environmental aspects is more advantaged than MMSW mechanical-biological treatment and subsequent incineration of obtained high calorific fraction (HCF). Also only during MMSW incineration the values of waste energy efficiency according to new EU Waste Directive are satisfied. Keywords: Energy efficiency, environmental impact, high calorific fraction, incineration, life cycle assessment, mechanical-biological treatment, municipal solid waste.
Does EU waste legislation comply with the best available MBT technologies?
Indrek Paal
My presentation is driven by the rejecting attitude we have faced during the establishing process of the very first mixed municipal solid wastes MBT terminal in the Baltic states. During the preparatory phase of the presentation, the presumable cause for the doubts of local Estonian officials became evident – sorry to say, but it all starts from the existing and emerging European legislation. MBT technology, especially processing mixed solid wastes and the subsequent products is described in a number of EU documents that regulate waste handling in a manner that allows them to be held an evolutionary deadend, if desired. Ecocleaner has been engaged in investigating MBT problems for four years. We operate the Baltic first mixed municipal solid wastes MBT terminal since the 1st of January, 2008. The aim of the presentation is to introduce a possible utilization field that is already tested in practice, and the associated problems. Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste & MBT vs Composting & separately collected biowaste
The situation of Austrian MBT-plants – a synopsis of data originating from a research project
Dipl. Ing. Dr. Ena Smidt, Dipl.-Ing. Johannes Tintner, Dr. Katharina Meissl, Dipl.-Ing Erwin Binner
The target of the FWF-research project (January 2007 to September 2009) is the development of prediction models for the determination of time consuming parameters. Respiration activity, gas generation sum and calorific value have to comply with the limit values of the Austrian Landfill ordinance before landfilling. The prediction models are based on infrared spectral and thermal analyses (differential scanning calorimetry DSC) and multivariate statistics. Due to many advantages these methods are promising tools for the application in waste management practice in the future. In the course of the project many data of all Austrian MBT-plants were generated using conventional and innovative methods. This study gives a short synopsis of the results obtained to date. Similarities and differences between the plants depending on input materials and process operation are presented. Variations of processes in the same plant due to changing operation conditions are visualized by FTIR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and by conventional parameters.
Advances in waste processing and diversion from landfill in Australia
David Gamble
Alternative waste technologies are expected to be the main focus for improved processing and resource recovery of municipal wastes in the immediate future. There is scope to extend this to commercial wastes. In NSW, there are already three AWT facilities in operation, two more being built and two more planned to be operating by 2010. This paper discusses current progress in implementing AWT in Australia, and provides an update of recent projects and factors driving the implementation of new waste technologies in Australia. Keywords: Alternative waste technology, AWT, sustainable waste management
From waste to resource management - Do we still need incineration?
Dr.-Ing. Matthias KĂŒhle-Weidemeier
With regard to the shortage and price increase of resources it is important to break new ground in waste management to support sustainable methods of waste treatment in the future. The following article gives an overview of the availability and the use of raw materials (fossil fuels, metallic and non-metallic) in some important countries in the world. Also, it is shown how CO2-emissions can be reduced by recycling and valuable resources can be saved for future generations. Today’s methods of waste treatment (mechanical-biological-treatment or waste incineration) are evaluated concerning their feasibility for sustainable waste management. Finally recommendations on how to reach a sustainable waste management are presented. Keywords: waste management, resources, raw materials, waste treatment, MBT, incineration 1 Introduction 2 Population growth, consumption of raw materials and available resources 2.1 Population development and consumption of raw materials 2.2 Important definitions on material reach 2.3 Reach of fossil fuels and Uranium 2.4 Reach of metals and minerals 2.5 Price development of secondary raw materials 2.6 Reduction of CO2- emissions by recycling 3 Feasibility of waste treatment technologies for the requirements of sustainable waste management 3.1 Treatment of residual waste in Germany 3.2 Thermal waste treatment (incineration) 3.2.1 „Classic“ incineration of residual waste 3.2.2 Co-generation plants for refuse derived fuel (RDF) 3.2.3 Evaluation and future relevance for sustainable waste management 3.3 Mechanical-biologial treatment (MBT) 3.3.1 Current situation 3.3.2 Evaluation 3.3.3 Enhancement and future potencial of MBT 4 Resource recovery from landfills 5 Summary and recommendations
How is MBT-technology in 20 years?
Dipl.-Ing. Johannes Tintner, Dipl. Ing. Dr. Ena Smidt, Dr. Katharina Meissl, Dipl.-Ing Erwin Binner
The future challenge in waste management will be the use of resources from waste in a proper way. In this paper data of four sorting analyses are presented. Input materials of four MBT plants were investigated and assessed in terms of the intended purpose. About 5 to 10 % were sorted for material recovery. Improved sorting technologies can provide about 30 % for heat production. Data of carbon sequestration in landfilled MBT material are presented and compared to municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash. The total organic carbon (TOC) content differs from MBT material (average ~ 17 % DM) to MSWI bottom ash (average ~ 2 % DM). Finally incineration of municipal solid waste containing biogenic materials and food waste with high water contents is discussed. Keywords: MBT technology, material recovery, sorting analyses, carbon sequestration 1 Introduction 2 Materials and Methods 2.1 Sorting analyses 2.2 Determination of carbon contents in MBT landfills 2.3 Determination of carbon contents in MSWI bottom ash and water evaporation in combusted MBT materials using thermal analysis 3 Results 3.1 Sorting analyses 3.2 Organic carbon contents in MBT materials and MSWI bottom ash 4 Discussion
Evaluation of system costs for the use of plastics with regard to disposal costs
Dipl.-Ing. Reinhard Schu, Dipl.-Ing. Jens Niestroj, Dipl.-Biol. Kirsten Schu
In this paper we evaluate the real costs for the use of plastics regarding costs for disposal. These costs are until now not sufficiently reflected in the consumer prices. This causes massive competitive disadvantages for renewable raw materials, even though these are produced with significantly lower energy consumption and disposal costs. Plastics waste has no recycling potential and should be regarded as waste for disposal. Keywords: Plastics, Recycling, Disposal, System costs, Antimony 1 Introduction 2 Production of Plastics 3 Costs of raw plastics production 4 Replacement of renewable resources by plastics 5 Disposal of plastic waste 5.1 Energy Recovery of Plastic Waste 5.1.1 Cadmium pollution 5.1.2 Antimony pollution 5.1.3 Lead Pollution 5.1.4 Mercury pollution 5.1.5 Chlorine pollution 5.2 Raw material recycling 5.3 Material recycling 5.4 Society Landfill 5.5 Thermal Disposal by Waste Incineration 5.6 Landfill 5.7 Export for pseudo recycling 6 Conclusion
Recovering biowastes from municipal waste to land: maintaining public confidence through regulation
Dave Purchase
This paper explains how the Environment Agency is developing its approach regulating the recovery of compost-like output (CLO) derived from the mechanical, biological treatment (MBT) of mixed municipal solid waste. This is currently the focus of our attention on the recovery of a range of organic wastes. The paper gives the author’s current answers and views on the following questions: What is MBT CLO and how can it be used? What are the problems with its use and the restrictions that are imposed? What is the position of the Environment Agency on sustainable use of biowastes and the use of MBT CLO on agricultural land? What is the demand, and how much CLO is there? What are the risks and how are we regulating them? How will we improve the evidence? This approach is driven by the belief that we can only increase public confidence in the recycling of biowastes if we actively maintain public confidence in how we regulate those risks. Keywords: MBT, CLO, mechanical-biological treatment, compost-like output, bioresources, MSW, mixed municipal solid waste
Risk assessment for the use of mixed waste composts on previously developed land in the UK
Dr. Antony S. Chapman, Dr. Graham Merrington, Prof. R.P. Bardos
Within the current regulatory framework in the UK the most significant land-based outlet for MBT compost in the UK is likely to be previously developed land (PDL). If MBT compost is to be successfully and sustainably applied to PDL over time, there is a need to assess the potential environmental and human health risks of such an activity in a proportionate and robust manner. Such an assessment would provide a clear framework through which informed decisions could be made by both environmental regulators and the regulated community alike. This paper will describe the potential scale of future MBT compost production in the UK and potential applications for the material on PDL, as well as approaches to the assessment of the degree of risk involved in doing so. Keywords: MBT, compost, Previously Developed Land (PDL), risk assessment, market opportunities 1 Introduction 2 What is MBT compost and how much of it is there? 3 The extent of Previously Developed Land in the UK 4 Existing guidance on the application of MBT compost in the UK 5 The potential hazards in MBT compost 5.1 Potential biological hazards 5.2 Potential chemical hazards 5.3 Potential physical hazards 6 Risk assessment 6.1 Risk to Humans 6.2 Risks to the Environment 6.3 Approaches to risk assessment 7 Conclusions
‘Mechanical-Biological Treatment: the French approach to agronomic compost quality’ How to generate soil conditioners from RHR* in order to optimise the recovery of organic matter
Emmanuel Adler, Nicolas Fruteau, Jean-Marie Rebillat
This paper will describe and analyse the current status of French MBT plants on a technical basis, providing the regulatory framework for compost management. Various issues will be addressed (partnership between waste processors and downstream compost users, the type of MBT technology implemented, flow sheets, etc.) and special emphasis will be placed on the environmental benefits of the MBT approach. 1 Introduction: the French background to the mechanicalbiological treatment of waste 1.1 Terminology 1.2 The French statutory framework governing the treatment & recycling to land of organic waste 1.3 The impact of the revised Standard NFU 44-051 on MBT plants 2 Recycling organic matter and typology of the mechanical- biological treatment systems 2.1 Strategies for recycling residual organic matter 2.2 Performance of selective collection of organic matter schemes 2.3 Effectiveness of MBT plants 3 The type of biodegradable organic matter in residual household refuse and the potential for recovery 3.1 Fractional analysis of the average residual rubbish in France 4 Examples of MBT in France 4.1 Typology of operations 4.2 Composting RHR 4.3 Digesting RHR 4.3.1 Dynamics of the methanogenesis process applied to residual household refuse 4.3.2 Example of a methanogenesis plant treating residual household refuse (Bourg-en-Bresse, France) 4.3.3 Methanogenesis applied to household biowaste (Calais, 62) 5 Quality of the compost produced by MBT in France 6 Conclusion
Addition of an Anaerobic Treatment Stage to MBT Plants – Based on the Example of Rostock
Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles, Joachim Westphal, Dr. Gert Morscheck
In Germany, a large number of MBT and waste incineration plants are available for the pre-treatment of municipal waste.MBT plants usually separate waste into combustible fractions, mainly plastics, which can be thermally used in specific plants, and another fraction, which mainly consists of natural organic components and is treated aerobically in most cases. In principle, mechanical(-biological) treatment processes have proven their functionality. Technical difficulties which arose during operation of such plants have meanwhile been solved to a considerable extent. However, there remains a need for optimisation in some plants and regarding certain parts of the MBT-technology. In January 2004, the city parliament of Rostock decided on a major change in the concept: the MBT plant was still to be built, but plans for an incineration facility under the responsibility of the EVG were cancelled. The Vattenfall Europe New Energy GmbH is currently building an RDF-fired thermal power station next to the MBT plant. The foundation stone for the MBT Rostock was laid on 27 May 2004; operations commenced on 1 June 2005. A fermentation facility as an addition to the MBT plant was commissioned in July 2008. This article includes following contents: -Plant Technology -What is the point of adding fermentation to the MBT plant? -The EVG’s Fermentation Stage -The Fermentation Unit - KOMPOGAS Dry Fermentation -Benefits of the Retrofitting of the MBT plant Rostock
Modernization of a Swiss MBT-plant with the SCHUBIOÂź-Process
Dipl.-Ing. Reinhard Schu, Dipl.-Biol. Kirsten Schu
The only operating mechanical-biological Swiss treatment plant for municipal solid waste (MSW) and biowaste (KBA Hard) will be modernized and the SCHUBIOÂź-Process will be implemented for the first time on industrial scale. The project and the characteristics of the innovative process are presented in this paper. It is shown, that all output fractions from MSW as well as from biowaste are completely recyclable. Keywords: SCHUBIOÂź-Process, Municipal Solid Waste, Biowaste, washing process, Schaffhausen, KBA Hard 1 Introduction 2 The SCHUBIOÂź-Process 3 Project Description 4 Sustainable Waste Separation 4.1 Biomass 4.1.1 Biomass from Biowaste 4.1.2 Biomass from MSW 4.2 Biogas 4.3 Waste water 4.4 Dried sewage sludge 4.5 Inert matter 5 Not recyclable fractions
Simplified Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste by Adjustment of Percolation BIOLEACHATE° Process
Dr. Peter Schalk
Most of the MBT-systems have been developed and installed in countries with a sanitary management of municipal solid waste which is financed by public fees or waste charges. When applied in developing and emerging countries these technologies initially have to be adjusted technically for a different composition of solid waste firstly. Secondly the limited budget for treatment of municipal solid waste requires to a costeffective facility process. As a result for this application the approved system of percolation is adjusted to the simplified treatment, BIOLEACHATE° process. Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biodegradation, biogas, dewatering, leaching, mechanicalbiological treatment, percolation, process water treatment, reduction of pollutants, waste water treatment 1 Mechanical and Biological Treatment of Mixed Municipal Solid Waste 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Development of Percolation 1.3 Operating Results of Percolation and ZAK 2 Adjustment of Percolation to BIOLEACHATE° Process 2.1 Reasons for Adjustment of Percolation 2.2 Leaching and Dewatering 2.3 BIOLEACHATE° process 3 Conclusions
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