- Marine Biodiversity and Climate Change
- Ocean Acidification: A Litmus Test for International Law
- Renewable Energy from the Ocean and Tides
|Climate Change and CO2 in the Oceans and Global Oceans Governance|
LL.B. (Hons.) Duncan E.J. Currie, Kateryna Wowk
Improving Governance of the Worldâ€™s Oceans
|Shifting Limits? Sea Level Rise and Options to Secure Maritime Jurisdictional Claims|
Dr. Clive Schofield
Among the many threats posed by sea-level rise is the potential impact of this phenomen on the extent of the maritime jurisdictional claims of coastal States. This paper provides a brief discussion of sea-level rise, before examining ways in which the maritime claims of coastal States may be impacted by rising sea levels. In particular, the traditional dependence on normal low-water baselines as the usual starting point for measuring maritime claims is problematic given the likely retreat of normal baselines inland as sealevels rise. This paper discusses options to address these challenges and outlines issues arising from the potential total inundation of a given Stateâ€™s territory.
|The Impacts of Climate Change on Poverty Alleviation: Managing the Risks|
Prof. Michael I. Jeffery
This paper will consider the distributional impact of climate change on developed and developing countries and, in particular, flag the potential for climate change policies to negate development objectives for the poorest countries. Developing countries, such as China, India, Brazil and Mexico, are essential participants to the success of any global campaign to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It is in this context that future policies involving both mitigation and adaptive strategies must incorporate measures to assist with alleviating poverty and thus enhance the ability of developing countries address broader sustainability issues. The article concludes with some suggestions for managing the risks through institutional reform.
|Across the Top of the World? Emerging Arctic Navigational Opportunities and Arctic Governance|
Dr. Clive Schofield, Dr Tavis Potts
The Arctic Ocean has witnessed dramatic thinning and melting of sea ice cover as a consequence of climate change in recent years. This has led to increasing access to and thus activities in the Arctic region, including with regard to shipping. Arctic navigational opportunities are examined and it is concluded that there are a number of major obstacles to Arctic routes transforming the pathways of global trade, at least in the immediate future. The likely future opening up of Arctic sea lanes does, however, provide a focal point for increasing external interest in the region and for changes in oceans governance.
|Ocean Acidification: A Litmus Test for International Law|
Dr. Rachel Baird, Meredith Simons, Dr. Tim Stephens
International environmental law has developed in a mostly sectoral and ad hoc manner. Regimes have been devised to address specific global or regional environmental problems, such as particular sources and types of transboundary pollution, rather than to promote transboundary environmental governance in a holistic and integrated manner. As a consequence there is today an array of international environmental regimes but a lack of coordination among them, and many regimes operate independently, and sometimes even inconsistently, in relation to each another.
|Marine Biodiversity and Climate Change|
Prof. Dr. Alexander ProelĂź, Monika Krivickaite
There is now a general consensus that global warming is real and that one of the factors forcing climate change is the anthropogenic addition of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The implications of climate change for ecosystems are, however, not yet entirely understood. As the oceans cover 71% of the earthâ€™s surface and play a major role in the global carbon cycle, it is important to understand how a changing climate will affect the biota not only of terrestrial systems, but also of the marine environment.
|Marine Snow Storms: Assessing the Environmental Risks of Ocean Fertilization|
The adverse impacts of anthropogenically induced climate change on the terrestrial and marine environments have been acknowledged by a succession of expert reports commissioned by global and national bodies.1 This recognition has prompted a variety of marine geo-engineering schemes to mitigate the detrimental effects of climate change on the environment including enhanced schemes to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere using the worldâ€™s oceans.
|Renewable Energy from the Ocean and Tides: A Viable Renewable Energy Resource in Search of a Suitable Regulatory Framework|
Dr David Leary, Miguel Esteban
Over the past few years there has been significant international interest in the development of offshore wind energy as a source of renewable energy especially in Europe. However, the wind is not the only source of renewable energy in offshore areas. The broad suite of technologies collectively known as ocean energy are also beginning to emerge as a viable base-load source of renewable energy. Ocean energy technology involves a wide range of engineering technologies that are able to obtain energy from the ocean using a variety of conversion mechanisms including hydrokinetic energy (where the energy of ocean (or fluvial) currents and tides is captured by devices which are installed under the surface of the water); wave energy (where the energy of the surface wind waves is used to produce electricity by a variety of devices installed on the surface of the sea); ocean thermal energy or OTEC (which uses the temperature differential between cold water from the deep ocean and warm surface water) and; Osmotic energy (which relates to the pressure differential between salt and fresh water).