Waste-to-Resources 2015

Comparison of MBT plants with and without upstream Anaerobic Digestion (AD) in terms of moisture Management and achievement of landfill disposal criteria
Aurel LĂŒbke, M.Sc. Roman Lugmayr
In waste industry the trend has developed to treat municipal solid waste (MSW) within an anaerobic digestion process. For this purpose MBT plants with an upstream AD plant were built. In the context of plant monitoring and trials one MBT with AD and one MBT without AD were examined and compared to determine the impact of the AD process. For this, the plant operation, especially the moisture management, the compliance of the landfill criteria and also the economic efficiency of the MBT were investigated.
Energetische und stoffliche Verwertung von Inkontinenz-AbfÀllen (INKOCYCLE): Anaerobe Behandlung von Erwachsenenwindeln
Prof. Dr. Ulf Theilen, Prof. Dr. Harald Weigand, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Johanna Heynemann, Dipl.-Ing. Steffen Herbert, Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Luthardt-Behle
Infolge des demografischen Wandels in Europa wird das Aufkommen an InkontinenzabfĂ€llen deutlich zunehmen. Deutschlandweit handelt es sich derzeit um eine geschĂ€tzte jĂ€hrliche Menge von 200.000 Tonnen Inkontinenzabfall. Das Projekt „INKOCYCLE“ konzentriert sich auf eine Kombination aus energetischer und stofflicher Verwertung des Inkontinenzabfalls. Die energetische Verwertung erfolgt mittels anaerober Fermentation der biologisch abbaubaren Bestandteile des Inkontinenzproduktes, wĂ€hrend sich die stoffliche Verwertung auf den GĂ€rrest bezieht. Der anaerobe Abbau der organischen Fraktionen bringt 663 Liter Biogas pro kg organischer Trockenmasse, mit einer durchschnittlichen Zusammensetzung von 56 % CH4 und 44 % CO2. Dies entspricht 155 L Biogas pro kg Originalsubstrat. Der GĂ€rrest besteht hauptsĂ€chlich aus den nicht abbaubaren Kunststoffbestandteilen, anhaftender Biomasse und Superabsorber. Der Heizwert der „Kunststofffraktion“ betrĂ€gt ca. 12 MJ pro kg, bei einem Feuchtigkeitsgehalt von 42 %.
Wiederherstellung der EG-KonformitÀt von Anlagen nach Umbau und Erweiterung
Dr. rer. nat. Dipl.-Chem. Thorsten Heinze
Die EG-Richtlinie 2006/42/EG regelt die EG-weite KonformitĂ€t fĂŒr das Inverkehrbringen von Anlagen und Maschinen in Bezug auf Handhabung und Sicherheit von Anlagen. Im Falle einer Erweiterung oder eines Umbaus einer bestehenden Anlage kann eine neue KonformitĂ€tsbewertung notwendig werden.
Case study of an MBT producing SRF for cement kiln cocombustion, coupled with a bioreactor landfill for process residues
Mario Grosso, L. Rigamonti, Dr. Sergio Scotti
The research focuses on the performances of a traditional single stream MBT for SRF production suitable for co-combustion in a cement kiln. Bio-drying of the residual waste is followed by mechanical refining in order to fulfil the quality requirements by the cement kilns. The residues arising from the mechanical refining section are landfilled in a nearby bioreactor-landfill, where landfill gas is collected for electric energy recovery. A detailed mass balance of the system is presented, followed by a Life Cycle Assessment.
Erfahrungen mit Power to Gas – Aufbereitungstechnologie fĂŒr KlĂ€ranlagen?
RĂŒdiger Eckel
In Allendorf (Eder) wird erstmals Methan, das mithilfe eines biologischen Verfahrens aus regenerativem Überschussstrom (z.B. Wind- oder Sonnenstrom) hergestellt wird, in das öffentliche Erdgasnetz eingespeist. Die weltweit erste Anlage ihrer Art ging Anfang MĂ€rz 2015 in Betrieb. Davor war am Standort der KlĂ€ranlage Schwandorf eine Powerto-Gas-Demonstrationsanlage von MicrobEnergy (Viessmann Group) in Betrieb.
From Selective Collection to Solid Recovery Fuel and 50% recovery achievement: two Italian case studies
Dr.-Ing. Dipl. Elena Cristina Rada, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Vincenzo Torretta
Developments in the management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) has followed a very complex evolution in Europe, where, gradually, the principle that, in addition to minimizing the production of waste, the necessity to maximize its recovery has been established. This leads to consider the waste as a potential resource, with both environmental and economic benefits. However, considering the different waste management Systems in EU, the results obtained are very different because they are affected by different aspects (socio-economic structure, traditions, conformation of the territory, critical environmental issues, etc). The present study took into account the situation in two developed and rich areas located in the Northern Italy, comparing the different approaches with the aim at improving the waste management by optimizing the recovery of waste, especially from an energy point of view, and in particular, realizing solid recovery fuel (SRF) starting from the residual municipal solid waste (RMSW).
The APECS-biomass model
Dr. Jan Mumme
Organic wastes in all their different shapes and compositions have gained significant commercial, political and academic interest during the last decade. The main driver for this development is the widely accepted consideration of organic wastes as valuable resources rather than problematic or worthless stuff. With the aim to turn the economy from its fossil basis into a bio-economy with presumably higher resource efficiency and less negative or even positive climate impact, governments in many countries have startedto support the use of waste biomass in many ways including subsidies.
Hydrothermale Carbonisierung – Einsatzmöglichkeiten und Potenziale
Katja Wiedner
Unterschiedliche thermochemische Technologien werden eingesetzt, um unterschiedliche Produkte wie Gas, Öl oder Feststoffe herzustellen. Die Pyrolyse (Pyrokohle) oder hydrothermale Carbonisierung (Hydrokohle) sind die bekanntesten Techniken zur Umwandlung von Biomasse oder organischen AbfĂ€llen in Kohle oder kohleĂ€hnliche Produkte. Aufgrund der unterschiedlichen Prozessbedingungen dieser Technologien unterscheiden sich deren Erzeugnisse wesentlich voneinander.
Development of a rotating fermentation reactor for Biogas production from organic waste
Dipl.-Ing.(FH) Felix BrĂŒck
To maximize biogas yields, adequate substrate mixing during anaerobic digestion (AD) is of particular importance. In dry AD this may be hampered by high solid matter Contents causing a pronounced wear of mixing tools and triggering costly maintenance interruptions. This study aims at the development of a rotating drum fermenter (RDF) to overcome these problems. As a first step towards the development of a full-scale RDF for dry AD of biowaste, particular attention was given to the mixing performance. Therefore, a lab-scale RDF was constructed from acrylic glass to allow visual inspection of the radial mixing process.
Entwicklung der Abfallwirtschaft und des Stoffstrommanagements am Beispiel der Region Hannover
Dipl. Ing, Roland Middendorf
Die Region Hannover kann bei der Verwertung von AbfĂ€llen und Wertstoffen auf eine langjĂ€hrige Erfahrung zurĂŒckblicken. In dieser Zeit sind etliche Behandlungsanlagen gebaut worden deren Innovativer Charakter weit ĂŒber die Grenzen der Region Anerkennung gefunden hat. Das Stoffstrommanagement kommunaler Entsorgungsbetriebe ĂŒber einen Zeitraum von Jahrzehnten erfordert entsprechend angepasste Strategien.
Optimierte biologische Trocknung fĂŒr eine stabile EBSQualitĂ€t – Erfahrungen aus der MBA NeumĂŒnster
Dipl.-Ing. Ralf Ketelhut
Die MBA NeumĂŒnster GmbH betreibt eine Mechanisch Biologische Abfallaufbereitungsanlage, in der aus einem Input von jĂ€hrlich rund 150.000 Mg HausmĂŒll, ca. 32.000 Mg SperrmĂŒll und ca. 60.000 Mg heizwertreichen AbfĂ€llen eine Masse von ca. 150.000 Mg Ersatzbrennstoff hergestellt wird. Das aufgeschlossene HausmĂŒll-Unterkorn < 80 mm sowie Anteile des SperrmĂŒlls < 50mm werden einer biologischen Trocknung im statischen Reaktor unterzogen, bei der innerhalb eines Zeitraums von 21 Tagen ein Wassergehalt von 20 Masse% erreicht werden soll.
Utilization of alternative fuels in substitute fuel, cement and coal-fired power plants in Germany
Dipl.-Kfm. Dirk Briese, Dipl.-Ökonom Jens Gatena, Anna Esper
High costs for fossil fuels and climate protection cause a higher importance of coincineration of alternative fuels in cement plants and coal-fired power plants. As alternative fuels various waste based materials are used, for example used wood, waste oil or (treated) industrial, trade and municipal wastes. The use is limited especially due to plant technology and legal emission standards. These aspects have a high influence on the markets for co-incineration in coal-fired power plants and cement plants. The following article will provide an overview of the status quo of the mentioned markets and ist developments until 2020.
Emission situation of bio-waste digestation
Dipl.-Umweltwiss. Jaqueline Daniel-Gromke, Dr. Walter Stinner, Dr.-Ing. Jan Liebetrau, Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles
This paper focus on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions measured at 12 representative anaerobic digestion (AD) plants of the separately collected organic fraction of household waste (bio- waste). The emission analysis included the determination of methane(CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3). The results of the emissionmeasurements were used to assess the ecological impact of bio-waste digestion and to describe possible mitigation measures to reduce the occurring GHG emissions.
Pflicht zur Biotonne? – SpielrĂ€ume bei der Bewertung
Natalie Hildebrandt
§ 11 Abs. 1 KrWG verpflichtet zur Getrenntsammlung von BioabfĂ€llen ab 2015 – allerdings nur soweit dies zur ErfĂŒllung der Anforderungen nach § 7 Abs. 2 bis 4 und § 8 Abs. 1 KrWG (kurz: Verwertungsanforderungen) erforderlich ist. Dieser EinschrĂ€nkung wird in der Diskussion hĂ€ufig zu wenig Bedeutung beigemessen. Der nachfolgende Beitrag befasst sich damit, wie die öffentlich-rechtlichen EntsorgungstrĂ€ger prĂŒfen mĂŒssen, ob sie zur EinfĂŒhrung einer Getrenntsammlung von BioabfĂ€llen verpflichtet sind. Er zeigt ihre BeurteilungsspielrĂ€ume bei dieser PrĂŒfung und ihre Bedeutung in der Praxis auf.
Stand und neue Entwicklungstendenzen / Perspektiven von MBA in Deutschland
Dr.-Ing. Ketel Ketelsen, Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles
Derzeit werden in Deutschland ca. 6-7 Mio. Mg Siedlungsabfall in Anlagen mit mechanischer und biologischer Technologie stoffspezifisch aufbereitet, das entspricht ca.30 % der in 2012 angefallenen Rest-Siedlungsabfallmenge. Vor dem Hintergrund der europĂ€ischen AbfRRL und deren Umsetzung in Deutschland durch das KrWG mĂŒssen sich die Betreiber mit verĂ€nderten Rahmenbedingungen in der Abfallwirtschaft auseinandersetzen.
Landfill mining option: MBT role and landfill potential danger
Dr.-Ing. Dipl. Elena Cristina Rada, Dr.-Ing. Dipl. Marco Ragazzi, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Vincenzo Torretta, Ing. Giorgia Passamani
The use of landfills for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) has many technical and regulatory limits. An interesting solution is to recover the bales that have been previously stored in a landfill. After specific mechanical biological treatments (MBT), the contents of the bales can be used to produce a solid recovered fuel (SRF) that can be used for energy purposes. The possibility of producing SRF fuels from a landfill in northern Italy has been studied and is presented in this paper. The MSW extracted from the landfill, the bio-dried material produced by the waste hypothetically treated in a plant for bio-drying, and the SRF obtained after the extraction of inert materials, metals and glass from the bio-dried material have been characterized. Assessed the waste nature, the potential environmental impact of dioxin release from a possible landfill fire has been analysed, applying the Austal2000 model system.
Use of SRF in cement plants
Martin Oerter
Over the last decades the German cement industry has gained lots of experience in theuse of alternative fuels in the clinker burning process. The share of suitable alternative fuels could be increased continuously. In 2013 almost 62 % of the overall thermal energy demand of the German clinker kilns was substituted via alternative fuels. The recovery process of energy and material is carried out in an environmentally safe manner. This is proven by continuous and periodic control of the emissions of the major pollutants.Furthermore, the alternative fuels are subject to a quality assurance system if necessary. Untreated mixed municipal wastes are not a suitable material for the clinker burning process. The use of alternative fuels does not only lead to a preservation of natural resources. It also delivers a significant contribution to the reduction of fossil fuel related greenhouse gas emissions. In the meantime, the use of suitable alternative materials in the cement industry is also considered as Best Available Technique (BAT).
Auswirkungen von Wertstofftonne und Recyclingquoten auf die Restabfallzusammensetzung
Dipl.-Biol. Sigrid Hams, Dr.-Ing. Gabriele Becker
Im Zuge der Umsetzung der erfolgten und geplanten abfallrechtlichen Änderungen (Getrenntsammlungspflicht fĂŒr BioabfĂ€lle und andere Wertstoffe durch das KrWG, zuk.Wertstoffgesetz) sind auch verĂ€nderte Restabfallmengen und –zusammensetzungen zu erwarten. Dabei sind im Rahmen der Diskussionen um die Verbesserung der stofflichen Verwertung und ein neues Wertstoffgesetz auch verschiedene VorschlĂ€ge zu deren Ausgestaltung gemacht worden. INFA hat dazu einen Vorschlag fĂŒr ein Modell mit Cluster spezifischen Vorgaben zu Wertstofferfassungsmengen und Vorgaben fĂŒr die Recyclingquoten verschiedener Wertstoffe erarbeitet. Werden zukĂŒnftig eine Wertstofftonne oder auch eine Biotonne eingefĂŒhrt oder die vorgeschlagenen Erfassungsmengen eingehalten,so hat dieses Auswirkungen auf die Menge und Zusammensetzung des verbleibenden Restabfalls. Die Auswirkungen und mögliche Strategien werden ins besondere fĂŒr mechanisch-biologische Restabfallbehandlungsanlagen dargestellt.
FlĂ€chendeckender Ausbau der Biotonne in Deutschland Stand und Perspektiven fĂŒr die Kaskadennutzung
Dipl.-Ing. Peter Krause, Dipl.-Ing. RĂŒdiger Oetjen-Dehne
Seit dem 1. Januar 2015 verpflichtet das Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz gemĂ€ĂŸ § 11 Abs. 1KrWG Abfallerzeuger und öffentlich-rechtliche EntsorgungstrĂ€ger (örE) dazu, ĂŒberlassungspflichtige BioabfĂ€lle getrennt zu sammeln. Ein entsprechendes Entsorgungsangebot haben bislang zwar die meisten, lĂ€ngst aber nicht alle örE geschaffen. Jedoch zeigt sich ein anhaltender Trend hin zum flĂ€chendeckenden Angebot und dem Ausbau der Getrenntsammlung von BioabfĂ€llen.
SolidWasteSim – Simulation of solid waste treatment
Dr.-Ing. Bertram Zwisele, Carsten Böhm
A critical analysis of mechanical processes in waste treatment plants hints at vulnerablespots in the interaction of plant units and deployed heterogeneous materials. The Simulation of mechanical processes in waste treatment may depict the total material flow in a plant and as such, contribute to a better understanding of the behaviour in heterogeneous materials, to identify bottlenecks, to check plant modifications and hence, to Support planning and reducing time for implementation period.
Energieeffizienz in MBS Anlagen
Holger Lingk
Trockene AbfĂ€lle (Gewerbeabfall, SperrmĂŒll) werden in einem Flachbunker angeliefert, vorsortiert, zerkleinert und gelangen dann entweder in den Tiefbunker oder werden als EBS vermarktet. Die Anlieferung von HausmĂŒll und hausmĂŒllĂ€hnlichen AbfĂ€llen erfolgt direkt in den Tiefbunker. Der Abfall wird mit zwei automatisierten Kransystemen zunĂ€chst einer Zerkleinerung und dann der biologischen Trocknung in Rotteboxen zugefĂŒhrt. Der Rotte- und Trocknungsprozess erstreckt sich in der Regel ĂŒber sieben Tage in einem Temperaturbereich von 50 bis 60 °C.
Vergleich von MBA‘s mit und ohne vorgeschalteter VergĂ€rung in Bezug auf Feuchtigkeitsmanagement und Erreichung der Deponieablagerungskriterien
Aurel LĂŒbke, M.Sc. Roman Lugmayr
In der Abfallwirtschaft hat sich der Trend entwickelt, die anaerobe VergĂ€rungstechnologie fĂŒr die Behandlung von HausabfĂ€llen einzusetzen. Deshalb wurden MBA’s mit vorgeschalteter anaerober VergĂ€rungsstufe gebaut. Im Rahmen von AnlagenĂŒberprĂŒfungen und Versuchen wurde eine MBA mit und eine MBA ohne VergĂ€rungsstufe untersucht und miteinander verglichen, um den Einfluss der VergĂ€rungsstufe festzustellen. Dabei wurde besonderes Augenmerk auf den Anlagenbetrieb, insbesondere das Feuchtigkeitsmanagement, die Einhaltung der Deponieablagerungskriterien sowie die Wirtschaftlichkeit der MBA gerichtet.
HTC: Key technology in Biomass waste treatment
Dipl. agrar ing. Alfons Kuhles
Hydrothermal carbonization is the physiochemical process by which organic waste materialis converted into HTC biocoal and process water in a wet procedure at about 230 degrees temperature and 25 bar pressure within several hours. Hydrothermal carbonization is the industrial reproduction of the natural process by which biomass has been converted into fossil coal for millions of years. In this paper and in the presentation of Alfons Kuhles is the procedure of “Hydrothermal carbonization” explained, the GRENOL continuously operating HTC reactor, the mass energy balance of the GRENOL HTC procedure, usages and benefits of Hydrothermal carbonization as compared to the more established procedures of combustion, fermentation and anaerobe conversion (e.g. biogas production). In sum, HTC offers a new alternative procedure to process organic waste in an environmentally friendly manner, and to close the cycle of waste Management.
Umstellung der MBA Gescher auf die kombinierte RestmĂŒll und Bioabfallbehandlung
Dr.-Ing. Martin Idelmann
Die Entsorgungs-Gesellschaft WestmĂŒnsterland mbH (EGW) hat 2000 ihre Mechanisch Biologische RestmĂŒllbehandlungsanlage (MBA) zur Konditionierung von RestmĂŒll fĂŒr die Ablagerung auf Deponien in Betrieb genommen. Die MBA wurde 2005 an die neuen gesetzlichen Anforderungen angepasst. Zur Abluftbehandlung wurde der Biofilter durch eine Regenerative Thermische Oxidationsanlage (RTO) ergĂ€nzt. Die Tunnelkompostierung wurde um eine belĂŒftete Tafelmietenkompostierung ergĂ€nzt. Seit 2012 wurde die MBA auf die biologische Behandlung von BioabfĂ€llen umgestellt.
Maßnahmen zur Optimierung der FunktionalitĂ€t und Energieeffizienz bei der VergĂ€rung von Bio- und GrĂŒnabfĂ€llen
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Fricke
Die effektive Nutzung biogener Reststoffe leistet einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Schonung von Ressourcen und zum Klimaschutz. Hierzu gehören auch Biomasseprodukte, die als Nebenprodukt, Reststoff oder Abfall/Abwasser in unterschiedlichen Wirtschaftsbereichen neben dem eigentlichen Produkt entstehen. In diesem Zusammenhang wurden im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes „Steigerung der Energieeffizienz in der Verwertung biogener Reststoffe“ (FKZ-Nr.: 03KB022) die derzeit eingesetzten Technologien zur Behandlung und Verwertung biogener Reststoffe hinsichtlich deren energetischen Effizienz untersucht und Optimierungspotenziale aufgezeigt.
Waste management centre in Gipuzkoa
Antton Lete
In Gipuzkoa, a major debate has started up regarding the management of waste, caused by the project to construct an incineration plant. Their defenders maintain that it is a technology on the rise in Europe and that it is compatible with recycling, while its critics reject this premise and hold that incineration, as well as being harmful to health and the environment, goes against recycling, insofar as it destroys raw materials that could be recovered. Since they accessed public office in 2011, the current managers of GHK, the publicwaste management company in the province of Gipuzkoa, have dedicated their efforts to devising a new alternative project related to the recycling objectives set by the European Environment Commission, such as the mechanical biological treatment (MBT) plant presented at this conference. The latest rejected product from this MBT would meet the inertisation criteria necessary and would go to the recovery of degraded areas, such as the recovery proposal for the Osinbeltz abandoned quarry.
Empfehlungen zur Limitierung klimarelevanter Emission aus der offenen Mietenkompostierung
Dr. Jürgen Reinhold
Das LUGV Brandenburg hat seit 2009 der Dr. Reinhold & Kollegen Potsdam zwei Gutachten mit dem Ziel in Auftrag gegeben, die Möglichkeiten der Minderung von Klimagasemissionen aus der offenen Mietenkompostierung aufzuzeigen. Dazu wurden in Zusammenarbeit mit der GĂŒtegemeinschaft Kompost und in Abstimmung mit den parallel laufenden UBA-Projekten umfangreiche Untersuchungen in RAL-gĂŒtegesicherten Kompostierungsanlagen durchgefĂŒhrt.
Evaluation of the potential of different waste fractions for the preparation of Solid Recovered Fuels
Engineer Jose Manuel Gonzålez, Prof. Herminio Sastre Andrés
Non-hazardous waste fractions which cannot be recycled can be profited as Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF), for its use as fuel/cofuel in the cement kilns or other fuel-intensive applications. In this work, three types of wastes were studied in two different periods ofthe year: End of life vehicles (ELV) waste, packaging and bulky wastes. According to European Rule EN 15359, these wastes were classified as SRF according to three parameters: lower heating value (LHV), chlorine content and mercury content. The lowerheating value on a wet basis varies between 2277.9 kcal/kg and 10446.6 kcal/kg; the fine fraction of ELV wastes having the lowest calorific power. Most fractions have chlorine content below 1 % and meet the restrictions on heavy metals. A comparison among experimental Higher Heating Values and calorific power predictions from elemental analysis was carried out.
Application of paper sludge for co-fermentation in MBT
Meike Walz, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Corinna Hentschke, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Achim Loewen, Dipl.-Ing (FH) Christian Bienert
During the production of paper and packaging materials, various paper sludges are producedas waste material. This research project, funded by the DBU, investigates cofermentation in the digesters of mechanical biological treatment plants (MBT) as an ecological and economical solution for the use of these residuals. Three types of paper sludge from different ways of paper production were analyzed. The slurries were checked for possible inhibition effects upon the biogas process in MBT and their Biogas yield. First results have shown that the co-fermentation of paper sludges in digesters of MBT plants could be useful. The results found so far do not show definite inhibition effects.
Latest North American Perspective on Integrated Solid Waste Management
Ljupka Arsova, John Carlton
This presentation will provide an overview of integrated solid waste management in North America. It will then focus extensively on the current state of solid waste management, material recovery, waste to energy (WTE). It will provide insight on the current practices in place and the results achieved in the material and energy recovery. Further it will discuss the current trends followed by perception as to what lies ahead, the expectations and the opportunities.
Integrated Waste Management System including Waste-to- Biofuels in Western Canada
Dr. Christian Felske
The City of Edmonton provides integrated and sustainable waste management Services for residents and for the commercial sector. These services are both economical and mindful of the environment. Up to 60 per cent of residential waste is currently diverted from landfills at the Edmonton Waste Management Centre. This is mainly achieved through recycling and composting processes. Edmonton’s goal is to further raise that diversion rate to 90 per cent. Two projects play a key role in achieving this goal: a High Solids Anaerobic Digestion Facility and the first of its kind Waste to Biofuel and Chemicals Facility. These two projects will be described in more detail in this paper.
Peripheral fermentation of organic waste – Insights and data from practice
Stephan Hinterberger
The fermentation of organic waste is a valuable source for alternative energy and nutrients in form of fertiliser. To increase the treatment of organic waste quantities, peripheral digestion plants can have a significant contribution. Although small scale digestion units have higher Investment costs based on the waste quantities processed, a specialisation on suitable wastes and an efficient use of alternative energy and fertiliser can guarantee an economic and ecological success.
First year biomethane plant of BSR in Berlin: From biowaste to biofuel
Dr. rer. nat. Karsten Kanning, Dr.-Ing. Ketel Ketelsen
Generation of biomethane from biowaste is thought to be a very interesting and climate friendly option for substitution of fossil fuels. However comprehensive data considering all relevant aspects of plant operation and subsequent processes with reference to emissions, energy efficiency and climate protection are rare. To close this gap an extensive program with data collection and measuring for 1 year was conducted by BSR in Berlin to get a detailed description of the recently installed Biogas West process and to evaluate the greenhouse gas balance of this process. The resulting key figures and balances give a reliable insight in what is fact today about generation of biofuel from biowaste by anaerobic digestion according to best practice and high emission reduction standards.
National Waste Policy in Brazil: its repercussion after 4 years
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Fricke, Christiane Pereira
After 20 years, in 2010, was published the national waste policy that was based on principles found in Europe and Germany, as well as the hierarchy of procedures concerning sustainable solution for the problems associated with the waste management, focusing the resources preservation and climate protection. After 4 years publication we can observe a slowly movement, slowly doesn’t mean small when we consider the giant waste market that Brazil represents, expecting for 2016 around 15 billion euros turn over in waste management where 80 % is done by private sector. Although the good news, Brazil still have 42 % of waste final disposal being done at wild landfill and their remediation represents also an interesting market. To change traditional practices we Need to open a multidisciplinary discussion integrating multiple market segments to enable the design of tools for the implementation of sustainable management of municipal solid waste.
Landfill mining in practice: Dismantling of the old dump Kössen / Austria
Dipl.-Ing. Martin Steiner
This case study presents in its first part a hands-on assessment of the content of a former landfill which was operated between 1920 and 1985 and accepted all municipal waste streams generated in a predominantly rural environment with tourism as a main economic factor. The assessment was performed – according to the principle “letÂŽs replace assumptions by knowledge” – prior to the complete removal of the landfill Content (volume about 50.000 m3). The second part gives an overview on the excavation and separation works itself which have been triggered by flood events in summer 2013 (Kössen, a small town located on a river emptying into Chiemsee in Bavaria was the municipality mostly affected by this flood in Western Austria).
Compost-like material or thermal valorization – impact on MBT Plant economics and environmental aspects – Case studies in Portugal and UK
Dipl. Ing. Stephan H. Schulte, JoĂŁo Rita, Joel Braga, Chris Mannall, Dipl. Ing. Hans KĂŒbler
The paper focuses on the utilisation of the solid product from the biological Treatment stages of three MBT Plants which treat the organic fraction of MSW by means of wet mechanical pre-treatment units followed by anaerobic digestion. The experiences of two MBT Plants in Portugal (CVO Valorlis and CVO Suldouro) which produce compost-like material are contrasted with the experiences at the MBT Bredbury Parkway (UK) which, by drying the digested solids, produces a RDF with low calorific value for further use in thermal valorisation. The impact of these two different approaches on the operating costs for the treatment of the digested solids as well as the environmental aspects for both valorization paths is discussed.
Finep and its role in Urban Solid Waste Management in Brazil
MSc. Erick Meira de Oliveira, Diego de Carvalho Frade
Providing good solid waste management (SWM) services continues to be a major challenge in most developing countries. In Brazil, due to lack of organisation and/or financial resources, activities such as collection, transportation, processing, treatment and disposal, which were at the responsibility of municipalities, are being outsourced to private companies, in an attempt to soothe public budget constraints and enhance the quality of the services. However, given the low economic feasibility of the current technologies in Brazil, the country remains a long way from ensuring sustainability in this sector. In this context, the Brazilian Innovation Agency (Finep) has sought to assist companies in promoting innovation in SWM, either by backing low-interest loans or granting economic subvention for the acquisition of goods, services and labour. The results, though still modest, are encouraging.
The relevance of the context for greenhouse gas emissions from residual municipal solid waste management
Dr.-Ing. Adele Clausen
Given the current EU legislation, the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions related to the treatment of residual municipal solid waste is relevant. As to a lack of models that allow for comparing the climate impact of different treatment options (incineration, mechanical biological treatment, landfilling), a model adequate for such comparisons is developed. Due to the impact of background conditions on the climate performance of waste treatment, the model is adaptable to different EU context situations. Exemplary calculations conducted with the developed model reveal, that the context of residual municipal solid waste management is of such importance that it even impacts the order of treatment technologies when assigning them according to increasing climate impact.
Percolate anaerobic digestion plant as component of MBT Erfurt Ost
Dr.-Ing. Hagen Hilse, Dipl.-Ing. Sebastian Otto, Dipl.-Ing. Marco Schmidt, Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Bertram
The GICON¼ Process, a two-phase, two-stage high solids anaerobic digestion process, has proven highly suitable for the processing of structurally-complex and often impurityladen feedstocks such as organic wastes of municipal or commercial origin for the Generation of biogas. Recently, this process was integrated into an existing mechanical and biological waste treatment facility in Erfurt, Germany, by modifying intensive composting boxes to produce percolate for fermentation in a GICON¼ Process fixed-bed methane digester. The application of the GICON Process enabled the exploitation of an energy source (the organic fraction of the feedstock) and the reduction of the residence time for the material in the composting boxes. GICON’s experiences with the development and realization of this project, as well as observations on the performance of the plant will be discussed.
MBT in Brazil – a solution for the current challenges
Jussara Oliveira do Nascimento
Brazil demonstrates advances in waste management, especially after the publication of the National Solid Waste Policy (NSWP), Law number 12.305, which requires a waste plan for each municipality, encouraging recycling and composting of waste. Still, the problem persists because of the lack of selective collection, lack of incentives to recyclers and collectors programs, as well as neglect of governments and the citizens. The likelihood of improvement is great, but will require much time and investment. The mechanical and biological treatment is then presented as a solution to meeting the goals in the treatment of waste in the short term. This work aims to analyze this technology and its application in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, evaluating their advantages, disadvantages and limitations to this process.
Material-specific waste treatment as an integrated component of RETech export
Dipl. Ing. Karin Opphard, Dr.-Ing. Abdallah Nassour, Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles
The German Recycling Technologies and Waste Management Partnership e.V. was established at the end of 2011 as a result of the Recycling and Efficiency Technology Initiative of the Federal Ministry of the Environment. RETech activities are focused on the promotion of applying sustainable environmental technology of German Recycling abroad. RETech supports all areas of waste management. German knowhow and German technology can help to improve the situation of waste management worldwide. By the example of Arab states and the PRC, this paper briefly outlines the status of waste management and points out the potential for German manufacturers and consultants.
Post-treatment of Composting Leachate by Photocatalytic Process
Dr Nader Mokhtarani, Alireza Ranjbari
In this study the capability of UV-ZnO photocatalytic process as a post Treatment method for composting leachate was examined at laboratory scale and in batch mode. The effect of some factors such as initial pH, oxidant concentration, light intensity and reaction time on the removal of organic load and color of leachate were investigated. Biological pre-treated leachate samples were collected from the effluent of leachate treatment facility of a composting plant in north of Iran. A Plexiglas column with 110 mm inner diameter and 300 mm height were used to conduct experiments. UVC lamps with different power levels in the range of 8-40W at the centre of the column were used as the source of irradiation. Based on the results of experiments, after 180 minutes of Radiation with 32W UVC lamps in pH 11 and in the presence of 1g.L-1 of slurry ZnO, maximum COD and color removal were achieved to be 57% and 67%, respectively.
3D-Geospatial Data using Unmanned Airborne Vehicles
Dr.-Ing. Werner Mayr
The use of aerial images for 3D-geospatial information extraction is a known and precise technology. This technology, called photogrammetry, finds application also in Monitoring tasks of landfill sites. One obtains 3D-geospatial information such as volumes, terrain models, profiles, or contours all of which describe the area in a particular way, either for planning or for documentation purposes. Typically, one associates the capturing of aerial images with use of manned aircraft equipped with large format – nowadays digital – aerial camera systems. As aircrafts serve either fixed wing airplanes or Rotary wing aircrafts.
Municipal Solid Waste Management in Turkey: Status, Challenges and Future Strategies
Prof. Dr. Ertugrul Erdin, Assist. Prof. Dr. Hasan SarptaƟ
As in many developing countries, municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the major environmental problems in Turkey. Problems associated with MSW are difficult to address, but efforts towards more efficient and environmentally acceptable waste disposal continue in Turkey. Although strict regulations on the management of solid waste are in place, undesirable disposal methods such as open dumping still have been widely applied in Turkey.
Dry fermentation of organic waste by BEKON technology
Dr. Rolf Liebeneiner
Das BEKON-Verfahren ermöglicht es aus organischen AbfĂ€llen Biogas und Kompost herzustellen. Einsatzstoffe sind dabei die organische Fraktion aus dem Restabfall (OFMSW), getrennt gesammelter Bioabfall, GrĂŒnabfall oder andere organische AbfĂ€lle aus Landwirtschaft oder Industrie. Die robuste und vielfach erprobte Technologie erzielt dabei bis zu 90% des Biogasertrages im Vergleich zum Labortest (VDI 4630). Durch die Möglichkeit des thermophilen Betriebs von BEKON-Anlagen wird der Abfall zudem hygienisiert und die KapazitĂ€t erhöht.
Mechanical Biological Waste Treatment
Dr. Gian Francesco Galanzino
Integration among traditional businesses, existing waste facilities and new technologies can trigger environmental and economic benefits. Since the early ‘90s the European Union issued the Council Directive 91/156 on the landfill of waste better known as Landfill Directive, to be implemented by its member states. The Directive's overall aim is "to prevent or reduce as far as possible negative effects on the environment, in particular the pollution of surface water, groundwater, soil and air, and on the global environment, including the greenhouse effect, as well as any resulting risk to human health, from the landfilling of waste, during the whole LifeCycle of the landfill".
The dry anaerobic DRANCO technology applied to the organic fraction of MSW
Winfried Six, Luc de Baere
The DRANCO technology was developed in the eighties as one of the very first anaerobic digestion technologies for municipal solid waste (MSW). A first demonstration plant was erected in 1984 in Ghent, Belgium. At present about thirty DRANCO installations are constructed in about fifteen different countries. This paper describes these DRANCO installations treating the organic fraction of MSW, integrated in a mechanicalbiological treatment plant (MBT). It does not describe DRANCO installations dealing with source separated biowaste.
MBT Ljubljana: In Slovenia arises one of the largest and most modern plants in Europe
Dipl.-Ing. Gerhard Pilz
The new MBT in Slovenia’s capital gets ready to become one of the largest and most modern waste treatment plants in Europe. It will produce biogas, recover heat and power as well as SRF and other recyclable products while avoiding landfilling. The new facility is implemented into the existing waste management centre of Ljubljana.
Recovery of value from MSW and SSO by press Extrusion and waste cleaning
Karl Dirkes, Astrid Severin
Municipal solid waste (MSW) or source separated organics contain a large amount of energy and can be treated into sellable products. Through press extrusion waste is physically separated into two fundamental fractions, a biogenic wet fraction with hardly any non-organics and a solid dry fraction with almost total absence of organic biodegradable substances. This wet biogenic fraction can be further cleaned and subsequently used in anaerobic digestion plants to produce fertilizer, heat & electricity and gas. Through an additional separation process the dry non-organic fraction is prepared into RDF and recyclables. Within the SEPARATE project several waste streams and the two outgoing fractions are tested with a long-term test in Germany and several shortterm tests in different European countries.
Capacity Building and Fundamental Research to Develop and Implement a Mechanical Biological Treatment Facility with an Integrated Fermentation Stage in JundiaĂ­-SP, Brazil
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Fricke, Christiane Pereira, Aguinaldo Leite
Waste management has changed significantly in the last years, becoming an icon of sustainable development, contributing to environmental protection and guaranteeing the climate protection and the preservation of natural resources. In this context, Brazil passed a National Solid Waste Policy, which provides for selective collection and Treatment of waste before final disposal in the whole country by 2014. The development of technology, technical consulting and state-of-the-art machinery are necessary to implement the Policy. In addition to implementing the new policy, sustainable waste Management systems must be developed to mitigate the environmental impact generated over the last few decades in the country. This poses a considerable challenge due the limited expertise available to develop the necessary technology and to streamline them into the Brazilian market, which, in its turn, results in faltering decision-making at all public levels (federal, state and municipalities) as well as other relevant stakeholders, such as funding and environmental licensing agencies.
Liquid Digestate-free Anaerobic Digestion with the HZI-KOMPOGASÂź plug flow digester
Dipl.-Ing.agr. Raiko Kolar
The KOMPOGASÂź plug flow fermentation is a highly efficient process for generate energy from waste. The digestate from the fermentation has in this case due to the System to a water content between 70 and 75 percent. Due to its high content of nutrient salts press water can generally be used without further purification as liquid manure in agriculture. In many regions or even countries, there is due to intensive livestock farming, already a large oversupply of liquid manures or spreading is not allowed by law. Also the logistic could be difficult and expensive.
Operation experiences at the MBT Maresme, the latest wet anaerobic digestion plant for MSW built in Spain
Martin Ernst, Ottokarl Muck, Dipl. Ing. Stephan H. Schulte, Jacobo Moreno Lampaya
The MBT Maresme is the latest wet anaerobic digestion plant for the Organic Fraction from Municipal Solid Waste (MOR -Materia OrgĂĄnica Residual), that has been built in Spain, in countercurrent to the observed development towards MBT plants with only composting technology. In the present paper a short presentation of the MBT Maresme is given before the operation experiences during the start-up phase and the guarantee tests are discussed. Despite the challenge the operation of this facility under aggravating circumstances implied, the achieved performance and clearly advantageous energetic balance confirm the integration of a digestion step in MBT plants as a valid and valuable concept.
Abfall zum Wertstoff – Die MBA im Wandel der Zeit
Dipl.-Ing. Rolf Sieksmeyer, Dipl.-Phys. JĂŒrgen Martens
2012 wurden in Europa im Mittel 493 kg kommunaler Abfall1 pro Person erzeugt. DĂ€nemark, mit 668 kg pro Person, hatte das höchste Abfallaufkommen. Zypern, Luxemburg und Deutschland folgen mit mehr als 600 kg pro Person. Eine immense Anzahl an Waren, die wir im Alltag nutzen, wird aus Kunststoff, hergestellt – Flaschen, EinkaufstĂŒten, Einweggeschirr, Rohre, DatentrĂ€ger, Textilfasern, EinrichtungsgegenstĂ€nde und vieles mehr.
Efficient Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste by Percolation and Dewatering
Dr. Peter Schalk
Municipal solid waste has to be treated under economic and environmental commitments. Anaerobic digestion reduces the emissions by degradation of organic waste and promotes the expansion of renewable energy. One type of dry anaerobic digestion is processing organic solid waste in large concrete tunnel digesters usually operated by wheel loader. The biological treatment is supported by percolation to achieve Biogas from organic waste. But the water content of digestate is increased after anaerobic Digestion and often inhibits the rotting process. Residual organic acids and little void volume often complicate aerobic degradation and sanitation of digestate. Mechanical dewatering gives a start to powerful aerobic treatment of digestate. Results from several treatment plants confirm that dewatering of digestate increases the yield of biogas and improves the conditions of rotting.
Experimental check of digestate processing via vermicomposting
Ing. Romana CvrkovĂĄ
The article examines potential processing of digestate via vermicomposting. The experiments focused on the assessment of the properties of vermicomposts produced from conventional biowastes and biowastes with added digestate. The properties of vermicomposts were examined by means of pot vegetation experiments, agro chemicalanalyses of the growth substrate and of the grown plant mass. The test confirmed that the application of vermicompost with added digestate had a positive effect on the nutrient intake by plants as well as on the quality of the growth substrate. Moreover, there were interesting differences in the contents of hazardous elements. For example, the content of lead analyzed in the substrate made from vermicompost and added digestate was 17.07 mg/kg, whereas in the substrate made from vermicompost only lead amounted to 24.49 mg/kg. In searching for various methods how to process digestate, vermicomposting appears as a feasible Option.
Experiences during the elaboration of Waste Management concepts for eight waste management unions in Turkey
Jan Skajaa, Dipl.-Ing. Rolf Zurl
The general purpose for the project is to prepare integrated solid waste Management projects approved by EU and ready for financing and implementation under IPA (Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance) funds in accordance with the Turkish Legislation and the EU acquis for 8 Waste management Unions in the eastern and central Turkey. The waste management Unions were established according to the Turkish law and are situated in eight different Provinces, namely Artvin, Erzurum, Mersin, Banliurfa, Diyarbakir, Hakkari, KahramanmaraC, and Ordu.
MBT demonstration project in Tunisia
Thouraya Chantou, Ayman Elnaas, Dr.-Ing. Abdallah Nassour, Bernd Hasel, Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Pfaff-Simoneit
Tunisian waste is rich in organic and hence fairly wet. This causes technical Problems and adverse environmental effects when landfilled. But next to the formation of leachate and landfill gas also operation problems were observed especially at pit landfills because of unsufficient drainage of the leachate which resulted in situations that the whole waste is soaked with leachate and hence the mechanical stability is reduced. The main objective of the pilot test was to prove that the PMB is a feasible solution for the conditions in Tunisia and an adequate option to overcome some of the Problems mentioned above.
System for mixing the contents of a biogas digester by means of cyclically drawing off the product gas
Yves Bertrand
Conventional digesters fed on high solids material like manure, energy crops and/or other fibrous matter suffer from various disadvantages, among which : - the need to use powerful agitating and mixing systems in the digester in order to avoid the formation of a floating crust on top of the contents - the need to dilute the contents of the digester in order to be able to mix it, with as a result an increase of the size of the digester - the high thermal needs of the digester due to ist size - the high electricity consumption of the mixing system - the high investment costs of the system (size and auxiliary equipment).
Recycling and energy recovery of incontinence waste (INKOCYCLE): Anaerobic treatment of adult diapers
Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Johanna Heynemann, Dipl.-Ing. Steffen Herbert, Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Luthardt-Behle, Prof. Dr. Harald Weigand, Prof. Dr. Ulf Theilen
Due to the demographic change in Europe the amount of incontinence waste is expected to increase drastically. In Germany, the incontinence waste stream is currently estimated as 200,000 metric tonnes per year. The „INKOCYCLE”-Project focuses on a combination of energy and material recovery from adult incontinence waste. Energy recovery is pursued by anaerobic digestion of the biodegradable fraction of the diapers whereas material recovery options are targeted for the digestion residue. The anaerobic digestion of the biodegradable organic fractions results in 663 L biogas per kg organic dry residue, with an average composition of 56 % CH4 and 44 % CO2. Based on the original waste the gas yield is 155 L biogas per kg of used diapers. The digestion residue mostly consists of the non-biodegradable plastic components, adhering biomass and the superabsorbent polymer. The calorific value of the ‘plastics fraction’ (dry residue 42 %) is about 12 MJ per kg of washed digestion residue.
Experiences with Power-to-Gas – upgrading technology for sewage treatment plants?
RĂŒdiger Eckel
Methane produced in a biological process using surplus electricity from renewable sources such as wind and the sun is being fed into the natural gas grid for the first time in Allendorf (Eder), Germany. The first system of this type in the world went into Operation in early March. The MicrobEnergy (Viessmann Group) demonstration plant had been in operation at the Schwandorf sewage works until the end of December 2014.
Increase of Functionality and Energy Efficiency in Organic Waste Recovery
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Fricke, Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Turk, Dipl. -Ing. Axel HĂŒttner
Besides the basic types of process technology and process control, a number of overlapping parameters influence biogas production. The specific quality of fermenter Input is especially significant, such as regional variations in material quality and the Proportion of kitchen waste. The current survey could not provide adequately satisfactory underlying data, especially on material-specific influences. Plants do not uniformly determine the quantity of biogas that they produce. Some of them directly measure the gas flow and some calculate backwards indirectly from the amount of power generated. The latter methodology is expected to yield significant amounts of misinformation affected by the availability of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The evaluation did not reflect unusually low biogas yields that respondents clearly blamed on operating problems not relating to the process.
Recommendations for the Limitation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Open Windrow Composting Facilities
Dr. Jürgen Reinhold
In 2006, the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) commissioned Ingenieurgesellschaft fĂŒr Wissenstransfer GmbH (gewitra) in Troisdorf to carry out a study entitled "Determination of the Emission Situation of Biowaste Recovery Activities“ (UFOPLAN 2006, FKZ: 206 33 326). The findings of this study were complemented by additional assessments in a follow-up study "Determination of the Emission Situation of Anaerobic Biowaste Digestion Facilities and Determination of the Emission Situation of Biowaste Recovery in Open Composting Facilities" (UFOPLAN 2009, FKZ: 3709 44 320) likewise carried out by Ingenieurgesellschaft fĂŒr Wissenstransfer GmbH, Troisdorf. The results of these two studies characterize the current state of the knowledge on greenhouse gas emissions from biowaste treatment activities.
Obligatory Biowaste Container? Wide Margin of Judgement
Natalie Hildebrandt
The German Waste Management Act (Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz or KrWG) requires mandated waste management authorities to collect bio-waste separately (paragraph 11) – but only as far as this is necessary in order to comply with paragraphs 7 II to IV and paragraph 8 I (recovery requirements). This constraint is important. Whether separate collection is necessary or not depends on what is best for the environment in each case – recovering separately collected biowaste or recovering all or some biowaste together with other waste. Therefore, a life cycle assessment is needed. This presentation Shows that public waste management authorities have a wide margin of judgement when performing this assessment. Even if separate collection proves to be the best environmental option, it does not need to be introduced if not economically reasonable. If the right legal criteria are used to assess economical reasonability, the often-voiced Claim that separate collection is economically unreasonable in only absolutely exceptional cases proves to be wrong.
Expansion to a Comprehensive Bin Collection System for Biowaste in Germany Current situation and perspective for the combined recycling
Dipl.-Ing. Peter Krause, Dipl.-Ing. RĂŒdiger Oetjen-Dehne
The German Waste Management Act (paragraph 11 II) obligates waste producers and mandated waste management authorities to collect biowaste separately from 1 January 2015 onwards. Although most mandated waste management authorities have started offering these waste management services, not all of them have done so. But there is a trend towards a comprehensive offering and expanding existing bin collection systems for biowaste. Rising amounts of biowaste illustrate this effect. The UFOPLAN Research project on the mandatory implementation of separate biowaste collection, released in 2014, saw u.e.c. Berlin and GAVIA examine the implementation of the obligation to collect biowaste separately, existing concerns with the expansion of separate collection and recommendations for optimal system design. This presentation deals with the insights gained from this research project, current trends and the opportunities for the waste management industry.
Development of waste- and material flow management taking the Hanover region as an example
Dipl. Ing, Roland Middendorf
The region of Hanover can look back on years of experience regarding the recovery of waste and recyclable materials. In this period of time numerous waste processing plants with a highly innovative character have been built which were widely recognized also beyond the region. The material flow management (MFM) of the municipal waste Management companies thus requires the application of appropriate, future-oriented strategies. The companies are challenged on each level and in all their service areas, with the aim of a systematic further development of the service task entrusted to the municipal waste disposal companies. The Waste Disposal Association for the region of Hanover, abbreviated aha in German, has created the necessary prerequisites and continuously improves them.
Status and new trends / perspectives of MBT in Germany
Dr.-Ing. Ketel Ketelsen, Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles
Waste treatment management needs to realign specifications of sustainability of resources. According to present studies, waste treatment management is significantly able to contribute to material and energy recovery from solid waste. In Europe, implementation of the European Waste Framework Directive leads to changing solid waste arisings with regard to amount, quality and disposition. Meanwhile, significant over-capacities of solid waste treatment are present in the german solid waste market. Contradictorily, solid waste arisings are expected to remain static or even decrease against the background of Germany by the Closed Substance Cycle Waste Management Act (KrWG) which will lead to increasing recyclable fractions as well as increasing biowaste. Solid waste which is imported from other European countries currently balances this effect insignificantly.
Energy Efficiency in MBS Plants
Holger Lingk
The ZAB Nuthe Spree waste treatment facility is located in Niederlehme, about 40 km from Berlin city centre. The plant processes residual waste using mechanical-biological stabilisation technology. The treatment process aims to produce different qualities of RDF and minimise the amount of material consigned to landfill by using a combination of biological drying and mechanical treatment. The plant has an annual capacity of 135,000 tonnes.
Optimized biological drying for a stable quality of RDF
Dipl.-Ing. Ralf Ketelhut
The municipal utilities of NeumĂŒnster run a MBT plant which produces an annual capacity of 150.000 Mg of RDF from around 150.000 Mg/a residual waste, 32.000 Mg/a bulkywaste and around 60.000 Mg/a high calorific waste. After the comminution of the household waste fraction to parts below 80 mm, as well as parts of the bulky waste fraction to parts below 50 mm, the substance under goes biological drying in a static reactor. The goal is to reach a water content of 20 percent by weight within a drying period of 21 days. Although the drying process and the quality of the RDF have been improved continuously, quality fluctuations concerning the materials’ moisture content still occur. Due to the intensive supervision of the air management during the process of drying fora period of four month, it is now possible to control the drying process even in a static reactor by employing a targeted air Management.
Re-establishment of EC-Conformity after modification or expansion of machinery
Dr. rer. nat. Dipl.-Chem. Thorsten Heinze
Directive 2006/42/EC regulates the EC declaration of conformity of machinery with European regulations for safety and handling standards. The placing on the market of new machinery should be harmonized by this directive. In the case of modification or expansion of an existing machinery a re-establishment of the EC-Conformity may become necessary.
Conversion of the MBT plant at Gescher into a combined residual and organic waste treatment plant
Dr.-Ing. Martin Idelmann
The Waste Management Company WestmĂŒnsterland “EGW” has a mechanical biological waste treatment plant (MBT-plant) for the pretreatment of residual waste in preparation to its disposal in landfills, which was put in operation in 2000. The MBT plant was converted in 2005 to meet new legal requirements. A regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO) has been added to the biofilter for thermal exhaust air treatment and the tunnel composting was supplemented by an aerated windrow composting unit. Since 2012, theMBT plant was converted towards the biological treatment of separately collected organic waste.
Effect of Recycling Bin and Recycling Rates on the Composition of Residual Waste
Dr.-Ing. Gabriele Becker
The new German Waste Management Act (KrWG) defined a new five-step waste hierarchy (paragraph 6) that lays out the fundamental sequence from waste prevention, reuse, recycling, other recovery operations (including energy recovery) to disposal. Moreover, paragraph 14 stipulates that at least 65 % of municipal solid waste and at least 70 % of construction and demolition waste should be recycled by 2020. Biowaste, paper, metal, plastic and glass waste are to be collected separately under the provisions of paragraph 11 I and paragraph 14 I of the Act from 1 January 2015 at the latest. These rules aim to unlock the high resource potential of wastes with intrinsic value even more efficiently.
Hydrothermal Carbonisation – Applications and Potentials
Katja Wiedner
Contrasting thermochemical technologies are used, leading to the production of differentend products such as gas, oil and solids. Pyrolysis (pyrochar) and hydrothermal carbonization (hydrochar) are prominent technologies converting organic residues or waste into charcoal or end products resembling charcoal. Due to the different production conditions of these technologies, end products have fundamentally different properties.
From Waste to Resources – MBT Technology Through The Ages
Dipl.-Ing. Rolf Sieksmeyer, Dipl.-Phys. JĂŒrgen Martens
In 2012, 493 kg of municipal waste were produced per person in Europe. Denmark, with 668 kg of municipal waste per person, produced the highest per-capita amount of waste, followed by Cyprus, Luxembourg and Germany with each generating more than 600 kg per person. An enormous amount of goods used in everyday life is produced from plastic: bottles, shopping bags, disposable tableware, pipes, discs, textile fibres, furnishings, and many more.


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