|EU and US Regulatory Approaches to Information on Chemicals in Products:
Implications for Consumers|
Linda Molander, Alison K. Cohen
Information dissemination across the supply chain to consumers about chemicalsâ€™ hazardous properties and presence in consumer products has been recognized as insuffi cient to improve to enable both producers and end-users to avoid hazardous chemicals and to manage risks to human health and the environment.
|Risk Assessment, Science and Deliberation: Managing Regulatory Diversity under the SPS Agreement?|
The adoption by WTO Members of measures relating to the protection of health and life of animals, plants and humans is regulated by the WTO Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement. A fundamental question in the application of this agreement concerns the distinction to be drawn between legitimate regulation and unlawful restriction of trade. This distinction can be diffi cult to discern, particularly since different communities have different levels of tolerance for risk, which leads to varying national regulatory decisions.
|Private Norms as International Standards? â€“ Regime Collisions in Tuna-Dolphin II|
The requirements of free trade and economic globalisation and the respective international legal framework, namely in the context of the WTO, have led to a decrease of the regulatory power of the nation states which cannot be replaced by comparable public international law making â€“ neither in content nor with respect to legitimacy considerations.
|Impact Assessment and the Policy Cycle in the EU|
With the Communication on Smart Regulation issued in October 2010, the European Commission tried to foster a better management of the whole policy cycle. According to that Communication, amending policy proposals must be preceded by an ex-post assessment of the current situation, allowing â€śclosing the policy cycleâ€ť.