Vegetable wastes characterization for feed production in the basque country

Almost three-quarters pairs of vegetable wastes generated from food surplus finish in a landfill, in spite of having the potential to be valued as raw material for animal feed if they are managed properly. In addition, the dependence on the traditional raw materials by feed manufactures makes necessary to look for alternatives. In this sense, this study, as a part of a European LIFE 09 ENV ES 473 Project, is located in the Basque Country (north of Spain) and has been firstly focused on vegetable wastes characterization.

Since the use of food by-products as animal feed feasibility depends on each by-product characteristics, all factors of influence must be identified and analysed in order to assure the developing of an effective and viable solution for their addition in feed formulations. To get it, all vegetable producer sectors have been identified and the quantity of each by-product has been estimated by consulting previous studies, public and private databases and by making a questionnaire to the associations and main representative enterprises of each sector. Also, the relation between Composition and Technical, Market and Legal needs has been studied listing all requirements and legislation and making a complete list of analytical parameters that have been divided in nutritional composition and undesirable substances. It has also been studied the Seasonal Variability of the composition of Market sector by defining a Sampling plan, which has been divided in three different periods throughout the year: one in spring, the second between summer and autumn and the last one in winter, with the aim of analysing how the composition of each sample varies depending on the month. In order to ensure the representativeness of the samples and to allow comparison between different samples analytical results, it has been designed a Sampling protocol, which guarantees that all samples have been taken in the same conditions. The vegetable producer sectors identified in Basque Country have been: Markets, Potato, Cider, Wine, Horticulture, Bread and Coffee and the total amount quantified has been about 25,000 tons. In case of Cider and Wine, it has been found a remarkable seasonal variety, only producing at a certain time of year, whereas in other sectors, such as Potato, Bread, Coffee and Horticulture, a seasonal stability has been found. In nutritional composition of Markets sector, substantial differences in the seasonal variability have not been found. In general, vegetable wastes moisture has been so high to advise reducing the water level and therefore bulkiness, by developing a drying process. However, the cost of drying them can be so high to make the treatment infeasible, unless the drying process would be highly efficient. In this sense, according to the EPEA (Feed Manufacturers Association of the Basque Country), the high Volume respect to low Protein level limits the inclusion of this raw material in feed formulations to a low percentage, between 3 and 6%. The most interesting vegetable wastes have been Bread and Coffee by-products due to their percentage of protein, of 10 and 17% respectively. Respect to undesirable substances, almost all them are below maximum legal limits, except coffee and wine by-products which have levels of nitrate above maximum legal limit, 33,3 and 28 ± 28 mg/kg respectively, being the maximum legal 15. In addiction, to minimize the contamination and guarantees their feasibility for feed formulation, it is necessary to design an Action Plan to manage them properly. As a conclusion, vegetable wastes have potential to be valorised as animal feed due to their characterization results but, there are some critical keys that they are necessary to solve to make them useful for animal feed manufactures, such as their high level of moisture and the cost of the drying process.



Copyright: © European Compost Network ECN e.V.
Quelle: Orbit 2012 (Juni 2012)
Seiten: 6
Preis inkl. MwSt.: € 6,00
Autor: David San Martin

Artikel weiterleiten In den Warenkorb legen Artikel kommentieren


Diese Fachartikel könnten Sie auch interessieren:

Rahmenbedingungen bei der Harmonisierung des Monitorings von Lebensmittelabfällen
© Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben (11/2014)
Das vorliegende Paper befasst sich mit der Diskussion um die Verbindung von front-end und back-end Ansätzen und möglichen Auswirkungen auf die zukünftige Datenlage der europäischen Lebensmittelabfallstatistik. Basis ist eine Harmonisierung der Defi nition von Lebensmittelabfall sowie eine abgestimmte Vorgehensweise bei der Erhebungsmethodik. Der front-end Ansatz umfasst die Messung der Abfälle beim Abfallproduzenten (z.B. Handel, Produktion), während beim back-end Ansatz die Abfallmengen bei der jeweiligen Verwertungseinrichtung erfasst werden.

Zukünftige Verwertung von Gärresten und Bioabfallkomposten vor dem Hintergrund düngerechtlicher Vorgaben
© Witzenhausen-Institut für Abfall, Umwelt und Energie GmbH (11/2014)
In einer neuen Düngeverordnung, die voraussichtlich in 2015 in Kraft treten wird, sollen die Vorgaben für die gute fachliche Praxis beim Düngen deutlich konkreter gefasst werden. Dazu wird die Verordnung neben dem regulativen Teil neun Anlagen mit insgesamt 19 Tabellen enthalten. Von diesen Daten darf nur in festgeschriebenen Fällen abgewichen werden.

Die neue Verordnung über Anlagen zum Umgang mit wassergefährdenden Stoffen – Konsequenzen für den Betrieb von Bioabfallbehandlungsanlagen
© Witzenhausen-Institut für Abfall, Umwelt und Energie GmbH (11/2013)
Durch eine Änderung des Grundgesetzes im Zuge der Föderalismusreform und die Verabschiedung des neuen Wasserhaushaltsgesetzes sind die Voraussetzungen für eine abweichungsfeste Vollregelung des Bundes durch Rechtsverordnung auf dem Gebiet des anlagenbezogenen Gewässerschutzes geschaffen worden.

Multi-component heat and mass transport model for composting process: Experimental validation
© European Compost Network ECN e.V. (6/2012)
Composting consists in an aerobic process where the organic matter from wastes is biodegraded and converted into a stable granular material called compost. Even if composting is considered to be based on natural phenomenon, it is governed by very complex mechanisms, involving many parameters such as quality and accessibility of the nutriments for micro-organisms, local oxygen content, temperature of the medium, pH, moisture content, and so on (Mustin, 1987, Diaz et al., 2007;). These parameters directly affect biodegradation kinetics. Moreover, they are interdependent and impacted by the operating conditions, which make difficult the understanding of the process.

Klimabilanzielle Betrachtungen vor dem Hintergrund sich ändernder Substratzusammensetzungen
© Institut für Abfall- und Kreislaufwirtschaft - TU Dresden (9/2015)
Die Berliner Stadtreinigungsbetriebe (BSR) sind als landeseigene Anstalt öffentlichen Rechts für die Abfallentsorgung und Reinigung einer Fläche von 890 km2 mit 3,4 Mio. Einwohnern verantwortlich. Im Rahmen der Sammlung (400.000 aufgestellte Abfallbehälter) werden rund 19 Mio. Entleerungen pro Jahr durchgeführt. Als Bürgerservice gibt es in Berlin 15 Recyclinghöfe und 6 Schadstoffsammelstellen, auf denen rund 150.000 t Abfall bei rund 2,8 Mio. Kundenbesuchen pro Jahr) angeliefert werden.

Name:

Passwort:

 Angemeldet bleiben

Passwort vergessen?

SIUS GmbH
der Spezialist für biologische
und mechanisch-biologische
Verwertung organischer Stoffe