Portability of waste management concepts and technologies

The Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety finances the International Climate Initiative (IKI) by means of carbon trade revenues. IKI supports worldwide projects for climate mitigation, adaptation to climate change, and for the conservation to climate-relevant biodiversity. Since 2006 AWN Umwelt GmbH (Buchen) initiates in Gaobeidian (South of Bejing) the establishment of a mechanical biological treatment plant (MBT) aiming on the reduction of methane emissions from decay of organic waste components at landfills. The greenhouse effect of methane, which is generated at landfills, is 20times higher than the effect of CO2. Due to biological treatment, organic components are being stabilized, what reduces decay after final disposal significantly. In summer 2009 the implementation of the project started. The facility opened for operation in September 2011. In early 2012 full operation will be accomplished. The MBT-plant consists of a biological treatment with active aeration processing 40.000 t of residual waste per year. In the mechanical step 4000 t of recyclables will be segregated. The MBT-output will be utilized as a methane oxidation layer covering old landfill sites. The facility also features a model plant for anaerobic digestion. TU Braunschweig provides scientific assistance during the start up operation. The project developer AWN Umwelt operates the facility during the first year of operation prior to transferring to the local government of Gaobeidian. The virtually certifiable emission reduction is expected to 500.000 tCO2eq for a monitoring period of 20 years.

Worldwide about 60 million tonnes of CH4 are emitted annually by landfills, which roughly corresponds to a share of 28 % of the anthropogenic methane emission (BAHR ET. AL., 2006). Whereas in Germany landfill gas potential is mostly reduced due to biomechanical or thermal waste pre-treatment, untreated urban waste disposal is still the common case globally. Chinese landfills alone produce with its 9.5 million t of CH4 nearly 200 million t CO2-equivalents per year. It is obvious that only minor reduction potentials in the field of methane emission by urban waste management are to be expected in Germany. They predominantly exist in the area of optimizing the existing facilities/ plant, where a high effort is accompanied by a rather small result. It appears more beneficial however to export German treatment technologies and waste management strategies to countries, where selective measures for emission reduction (pre-treatment, landfill gas collection, sealing of the landfill surface) have not yet been established. Technical adaption to climatically, geological and infrastructural conditions have to be considered as well as cultural aspects, such as educational attainment of the workforce, political and social acceptance, social tolerance and possibly already existing formal or informal strategies and structures for recycling and waste prevention.

Copyright: © Arbeitsgemeinschaft Stoffspezifische Abfallbehandlung ASA e.V.
Quelle: 9. Recyclingtage 2012 (September 2012)
Seiten: 8
Preis inkl. MwSt.: € 4,00
Autor: Dr.-Ing. Florian Kölsch
Dipl.-Ing. Christof Heußner
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Fricke
Dr. Mathias Ginter

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