Current Status and Prospects of Mechanical-Biological Treatment in Germany

A total of around 25 % of urban wastes is pretreated by means of MBT technology (MBT = Mechanical-Biological Waste Treatment) in Germany. This technology is based on a material stream specific waste treatment. It means that the material properties of residual wastes - which are varying to a large extent - determine the selection and specification of treatment steps.

A large part of today’s residual wastes remaining after the collection of all substances which can't be recycled by means of material recovery and therefore need to be disposed of are a very inhomogeneous mixture of various materials with very differing properties. Some of these wastes are from mineral origin and thus inert, i.e. are not able to react. Others consist of dry materials like plastics, textiles, paper or composites, all of them showing energy contents higher than average. Some others with higher portions of organic material are able to be biologically degraded and are possibly able to produce usable gas. Here the principle of material stream specific waste treatment starts to become effective. Material specific waste treatment segregates waste mixtures in different fractions. A first treatment step is the mechanical preparation where the waste mixtures are released from impurities and harmful substances, then classified in different partial streams, comminuted and prepared for the following treatment steps. Used for these purposes are e.g. sorting excavators, shredders, screening and mixing equipment, separators for the heavy and light fraction as well as for ferrous and non ferrous metals. In most cases the subsequent biological treatment steps are based on aerobic treatment by means of different decomposition processes. The scope ranges here from open decomposition processes on landfill areas to completely encapsulated systems with exhaust air treatment. To some extent anaerobic digestion steps are integrated, producing - under air tight conditions - usable biogas.

Copyright: © Wasteconsult International
Quelle: Waste-to-Resource 2011 (Mai 2011)
Seiten: 13
Preis inkl. MwSt.: € 6,50
Autor: Thomas Grundmann
Dipl.-Ing. Michael Balhar

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