“After a reform is before another reform.” This paraphrasing of a famous saying from the world of football seems to be a very fitting way to describe the status quo of the European policy on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The functioning of the EU legal framework on GMOs has since its initial establishment in the 1990s been troubled by political disagreement, deadlocks in decision-making, strong public opposition in the Member States, and considerable delays in the process of authorisation of genetically engineered products on the internal market of the EU.
Despite previous reform efforts, especially the significant reshaping and tightening of EU rules in the period of 2001 to 2003, these problems still remain. This makes EU authorisation of GMOs one of the most controversial and politically intractable policy areas. At the same time the EU institutions experience considerable pressure from the biotech industry and the EU’s trading partners supported by the framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) to install a functioning authorisation system compliant with the EU’s internal market as well as WTO law. In July 2010 the European Commission presented its latest reform proposal for the GMO legal framework. It adopted a legislative proposal to amend Directive 2001/18 on the deliberate release into the environment of GMOs (Deliberate Release Directive) in order to grant Member States more freedom to restrict or ban the cultivation of GMOs on their territory. At the same time, the Commission adopted a new Recommendation concerning national strategies on the co-existence of GM crops with conventional or organic crops.
|Copyright:||© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH|
|Quelle:||Issue 04/2010 (Dezember 2010)|
|Autor:||Maria Weimer |
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The New Strategy on Coexistence in the 2010 European Commission Recommendation
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2010)
The European Union tried to establish a “coexistence” policy for the cultivation and processing of GM and non-GM products after the political agreement that put an end to the 1999-2004 moratorium. Consequently, coexistence is part of this gentlemen’s agreement between States with pro and anti-GMO positions.
EU GM Crop Regulation: A Road to Resolution or a Regulatory Roundabout?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2010)
Since first embarking on the road of risk management options for the regulation of recombinant DNA (rDNA) activities and use in 1978, the European Union (EU) has largely failed to create a regulatory and policy environment regarding genetically modified (GM) crops and their cultivation that is (a) efficient, (b) predicable, (c) accountable, (d) durable or (e) interjurisdictionally aligned.
Towards a new EU Plant Protection Regime – Legal Problems arising out of the Transition with Regard to Regulatory Approvals and Authorisations
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (1/2011)
The plant protection law within the European Union has been continuously developed over the past two decades. Harmonized provisions for the placing of plant protection products on the common market were introduced by Council Directive 91/414/EEC of 15 July 19911 (hereinafter the “Directive”). Based on a progress report issued by the Commission under this Directive2, the need for a revision of the Directive was identified which should, in order to ensure consistency throughout the Member States and to provide for simplification, take the form of a regulation.
‘Have we all gone bats?’ – The Strict Protection of Wildlife under the Habitats Directive and Tourism Development: Some Lessons from Ireland
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (11/2010)
The legal protection of species of wildlife under EU law is or should have an increasing impact on tourism developments. It should typically force project modification, relocation or even in some cases project abandonment. Tourism developers are learning about these impacts rather slowly for a variety of reasons. The aim of this article is to provide legal guidance on the likely impact of the protection of species on tourism developments by examining the Irish legal experience of the protection of bats.
Umsetzung und Auslegung des Artikel 6 der Fauna-Flora-Habitat-Richtlinie (RL 92/43/EWG) in Großbritannien
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2010)
Der vorliegende Beitrag1 gewährt eine Übersicht der Umsetzung von Art. 6 der Fauna-Flora-Habitat-Richtlinie in den verschiedenen Rechtsordnungen der Staaten England, Schottland, Nordirland und Wales sowie Gibraltar. Bis 1998 stand dem Parlament des Vereinigten Königreiches in Westminster eine einheitliche Gesetzgebungskompetenz grundsätzlich auf dem ganzen Hoheitsgebiet zu. Nur für Nordirland bestanden besondere Regelungen, sodass die beiden Gesetzgebungsverfahren getrennt abliefen. Mit dem Verfassungsreformprozess, der sog. Devolution, fand eine Verlagerung der Gesetzgebungs- und Verwaltungskompetenzen von der Zentralregierung zu den einzelnen „Teilstaaten“ statt.