This research article analyzes and evaluates the key provisions of the Waxman-Markey Climate Change Bill, which was introduced to establish an aggressive cap-and-trade programme aimed at promoting renewable energy, energy efficiency, and reducing global warming pollution. However, the bill became controversial and was opposed by various countries as the provisions of the bill are against rules of the WTO. Developing countries are viewing it as an attempt to extra-territorially enforce carbon emission standards on their products and production processes, even when the latter do not have the financial capacity nor technology to effectively adopt and comply with such standards. The bill was proposed while the entire world was facing a financial crisis and the protectionism measures in the bill may further deepen the crisis. The paper ends with the conclusion that the present bill is insufficient as to control of carbon emissions, given its nature, until 2026 and it creates a volatile carbon market dominated by short-term financial gain incentives.
|Copyright:||© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH|
|Quelle:||Issue 1/2010 (April 2010)|
|Preis inkl. MwSt.:||€ 41,65|
|Autor:||B.A., LLB (H) Vijay Bishnoi |
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bifa-Text Nr. 45: Anpassung an den Klimawandel: eine Befragung oberbayerischer Unternehmen
© bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH (3/2010)
Das bifa Umweltinstitut untersuchte, in welchem Umfang sich oberbayerische Unternehmen vom Klimawandel betroffen fühlen, welche Aspekte dabei eine Rolle spielen und ob die Anpassung an die unvermeidbaren Folgen ein Thema ist.
Climate Change, Justice, and Clean Development – A Review of the Copenhagen Negotiating Draft
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (10/2009)
Global climate protection will be at the center of negotiations during the Copenhagen Conference in December 2009. It is very likely that climate change is raising challenges for mankind which have never existed in these dimensions before. In view of the sheer enormity of these challenges, we might also have to consider solutions which have previously never existed.
Beyond Déjà Vu: Opportunities for Policyv Learning from Emissions Trading in Developed Countries
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2012)
Under pressure to abate greenhouse gas emissions without burdening their economies, several countries around the world have introduced emissions trading systems as a centerpiece of their climate change mitigation strategies. Drawing on the experiences with emissions trading made in Europe, North America, and the Asia-Pacific region, this article shows that considerable diversity can be observed across systems, providing valuable opportunities for comparison and policy learning. Individually, and in comparison, existing trading systems offer lessons that can be applied to the design and implementation of new systems – especially in emerging economies where carbon markets are currently under development, such as China – and to the improvement of already operating systems. Such lessons are identified in three different categories: the role of the political process and economic context; system design; and system implementation and operation.
Market-based Instruments for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Brazil: Experiences and Prospects
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (12/2012)
Brazil has become an increasingly important participant in the discussion about climate change, combining an active role in climate diplomacy with credible domestic policy efforts. Market-based instruments have featured prominently in its domestic policy landscape, with carbon markets envisioned both at the federal and regional level. Aside from successful participation in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and some progress in the creation of voluntary offset markets, however, the pathway towards a domestic carbon market has so far been fraught by delays and ongoing uncertainty. Still, Brazil can build on proven institutional structures, quantified emissions limitation targets, and new rules on the collection of emissions data and sectoral mitigation plans to establish robust market-based instruments. A carbon market can help leverage its vast mitigation potential to abate greenhouse gas emissions at sufficient scale while limiting the cost of compliance for domestic entities. Given its unique emissions profile, however, Brazil should not focus on becoming a net seller of carbon credits or allowances to foreign entities, but should instead harness the opportunity to create an ambitious, welldesigned market and thereby become a leader on climate change mitigation in Latin America.
Climate Crime: Can Responsibility for Climate Change Damage be Criminalised?
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (10/2010)
As the world drifts towards dangerous climate change, there have been allegations that the acts or behaviour of governments, corporations and even individuals constitute “climate crimes.” In the near future, nations that see themselves as victims of climate change may also use the allegation of climate crime to seek redress from those they hold responsible. It is unlikely that exceeding emission targets or failing to assist victim states with adaptation efforts will be criminalised, although they may be subject to stronger or new civil sanctions in international law. Nevertheless, some harmful acts which contribute to climate change damage and are relatively easy to monitor and prosecute are likely to be subject to criminal sanctions.