METHANE EMISSIONS MEASUREMENTS ON DIFFERENT LANDFILLS

The detection and quantification of methane emissions from landfills is an important matter from an operational and an environmental point of view. It enables an assessment of the efficiency of the covers and the collection systems to be made. This is essential for the optimisation of the landfill gas (LFG) collection and recovery. A direct consequence is the reduction of global methane emissions. Furthermore, the monitoring of methane emissions is essential for environmental reporting (EPER directive) and for greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policies. It constitutes a potential lobbying tool and revenue when implicated in carbon credit projects.

Methane emission measurements were conducted on five landfills with different characteristics and landfill gas management strategies. Emission values ranged from 2.26 to 16.6 g CH4/m2/day. Results showed that the majority of the global landfill methane emissions were point source emissions, linked to the gas and leachate management networks and located near to slopes and cell edges. Results also showed that surface emissions through the cover were marginal. An efficient gas collection system showed to have a major impact on the reduction of the methane emissions.



Copyright: © IWWG International Waste Working Group
Quelle: Specialized Session F (Oktober 2007)
Seiten: 10
Preis inkl. MwSt.: € 10,00
Autor: A. Akerman
Arnaud Budka
Stuart Hayward-Higham
Olivier Bour
Didier Rallu

Artikel weiterleiten In den Warenkorb legen Artikel kommentieren


Diese Fachartikel könnten Sie auch interessieren:

A YEAR’S MONITORING OF A PASSIVE LANDFILL GAS BIOFILTER
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
In landfill rehabilitation programs, biogas management is a major issue. If biogas production is not sufficient for a flare to perform—methane concentration at an average of 30 % and biogas generation under 10 cubic metre per hour—, alternative solutions can be imagined. In particular, numerous writers have shown that it is possible to treat some of that methane by oxidation in the landfill cap or even by using a biofilter. This study takes a look at a French experimental site using this kind of landfill gas treatment.

BIO-TARP: DEVELOPING A METHANOTROPHIC ALTERNATIVE DAILY COVER TO REDUCE LANDFILL METHANE EMISSIONS
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Landfills are the largest source of anthropogenic CH4 emissions in the U.S. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007). Field data (unpublished) have shown that substantial CH4 generation and emissions can occur before engineered gas extraction is economically feasible. Methanotrophs are indigenous aerobic microorganisms in landfill cover soils that can oxidize CH4 and thereby provide a complementary biological mechanism to reduce emissions. Even though both landfill CH4 emissions and oxidation rates can vary by more than 6 orders of magnitude (Bogner, et al., 1997), field data have confirmed that methanotrophs are capable of substantial reductions in CH4 emissions in both conventional covers and engineered "biocovers" (Huber-Humer, 2004). In addition, methanotrophs are capable of reducing emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons (Scheutz et al., 2003).

COMPARISON OF A TUNABLE DIODE LASER APPROACH WITH STATIC CHAMBERS FOR DETERMINATION OF SURFACE METHANE EMISSION
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Increasingly there is a need to determine methane emission rates from landfills. These determinations are needed for greenhouse gas inventories, for constraining estimates of emissions of non-methane organic compounds and for determining the efficiency of gas collection systems. Measurement campaigns to determine methane emissions from landfills are not overly common although a number of studies have been published, frequently using static chambers as a measurement vehicle (Bogner et al., 1997a, b, 1993). The disadvantage of this approach is that it is time consuming and requires a large number of measurements to constrain estimates from large landfill surfaces. The chamber approach also will not detect emissions from above the soil surface which might be due to leaky gas plumbing fixtures.

DIFFUSED LANDFILL GAS EMISSION MONITORING IN NON-HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILLS: STUDY CASES
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
An articulated monitoring plan was arranged in order to set up an adequate measure campaign of the possible landfill gas escape from landfill body, with the aim of assuring scientific significance and coherence for the evaluation of vertical landfill gas emissions (i.e. from landfill surfaces in contact with atmosphere) and of horizontal landfill gas emissions (i.e. landfill gas migration through soil and subsoil toward the outside of landfill cultivation area).

APPLYING US EPA OTHER TEST METHOD 10 WITH OPEN-PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR MEASURING TOTAL METHANE EMISSIONS IN A LANDFILL
© IWWG International Waste Working Group (10/2007)
Optical Remote Sensing (ORS) is a powerful technique for measuring air contaminant emissions from fugitive area sources. Under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Defense’s (DoD) Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a Radial Plume Mapping (RPM) methodology to directly characterize gaseous emissions from area sources has been demonstrated and validated, and a protocol has been developed and peer reviewed. This EPA “Other Test Method” was made available for use on the EPA website in July 2006. The RPM-based methodologies use ORS techniques to collect path-integrated concentration (PIC) data from multiple beam paths in a plane and combine these with optimization algorithms to map the field of concentration across the plume of contaminant. This test method currently describes two methodologies that can be applied for landfill emission characteriztion. The methodologies are independent of the particular path-integrated ORS system used to generate the PIC data.

Name:

Passwort:

 Angemeldet bleiben

Passwort vergessen?